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Screening und Therapie des Barrett-Karzinoms (S. 10–19)
Nicola Frei, ChristianWeisshaupt, Thomas Ruhstaller und Jan Borovicka

  1. Malfertheiner P, Lind T, Willich S, et al. Prognostic influence of Barrett's oesophagus and Helicobacter pylori infection on healing of erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and symptom resolution in non-erosive GORD: report from the ProGORD study. Gut 2005; 54: 746–51
  2. Pohl H, Pech O, Arash H, et al. Length of Barrett's oesophagus and cancer risk: implications from a large sample of patients with early oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Gut. 2016; 65: 196–201
  3. Spechler  SJ and Souza  RF. Barrett's Esophagus. New En J Med. 2014; 371: 836–45
  4. Singh S, Garg SK, Singh PP, Iyer PG and El-Serag HB. Acid-suppressive medications and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut 2014; 63: 1229–37
  5. Spechler SJ, Sharma P, Souza RF, Inadomi JM and Shaheen NJ. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 1084–91
  6. Desai TK, Krishnan K, Samala N, et al. The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus: a meta-analysis. Gut. 2012; 61: 970–6
  7. Weusten B, Bisschops R, Coron E, et al. Endoscopic management of Barrett's esophagus: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Position Statement. Endoscopy 2017; 49: 191–8
  8. Duits LC, Phoa KN, Curvers WL, et al. Barrett's oesophagus patients with low-grade dysplasia can be accurately risk-stratified after histological review by an expert pathology panel. Gut 2015; 64: 700–6
  9. Phoa KN, van Vilsteren FG, Weusten BL, et al. Radiofrequency ablation vs endoscopic surveillance for patients with Barrett esophagus and low-grade dysplasia: a randomized clinical trial. Jama 2014; 311: 1209–17
  10. Stein HJ, Feith M, Mueller J, Werner M and Siewert JR. Limited resection for early adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus. Annals of surgery 2000; 232: 733–42
  11. Sharma P, Katzka DA, Gupta N, et al. Quality indicators for the management of Barrett's esophagus, dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma: international consensus recommendations from the American Gastroenterological Association Symposium. Gastroenterology 2015; 149: 1599–606
  12. May A, Gossner L, Pech O, et al. Local endoscopic therapy for intraepithelial high-grade neoplasia and early adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus: acute-phase and intermediate results of a new treatment approach. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 2002; 14: 1085–91
  13. Phoa KN, Pouw RE, Bisschops R, et al. Multimodality endoscopic eradication for neoplastic Barrett oesophagus: results of an European multicentre study (EURO-II). Gut 2016; 65: 555–62
  14. Manner H, Pech O, Heldmann Y, et al. The frequency of lymph node metastasis in early-stage adenocarcinoma of the esophagus with incipient submucosal invasion (pT1b sm1) depending on histological risk patterns. Surgical endoscopy 2015; 29: 1888–96
  15. Probst A, Aust D, Markl B, Anthuber M and Messmann H. Early esophageal cancer in Europe: endoscopic treatment by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Endoscopy 2015; 47: 113–21
  16. Westerterp M, Koppert LB, Buskens CJ, et al. Outcome of surgical treatment for early adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction. Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2005; 446: 497–504
  17. Mariette C, Markar S, Dabakuyo-Yonli TS, et al. 615O_PRHybrid minimally invasive vs. open esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer: Long-term outcomes of a multicenter, open-label, randomized phase III controlled trial, the MIRO trial. Annals of Oncology 2017; 28: mdx440.023-mdx440.023
  18. van Hagen P, Hulshof MC, van Lanschot JJ, et al. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for esophageal or junctional cancer. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 2074–84
  19. Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 11–20
  20. Al-Batran S-E, Homann N, Schmalenberg H, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil/leucovorin (FLOT) versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine (ECF/ECX) for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): A multicenter, randomized phase 3 trial. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35: 4004
  21. Stahl M, Walz MK, Stuschke M, et al. Phase III comparison of preoperative chemotherapy compared with chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. J Clin Oncol: official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009; 27: 851–6
  22. Stahl M, Riera-Knorrenschild J, Stuschke M, et al. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and the long-term run in curative treatment of locally advanced oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: Update of the POET phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34: 4031
  23. Klevebro F, Alexandersson von Dobeln G, Wang N, et al. A randomized clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction. Annals of oncology: official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology 2016; 27: 660–7
  24. Markar SR, Noordman BJ, Mackenzie H, et al. Multimodality treatment for esophageal adenocarcinoma: multi-center propensity-score matched study. Ann Oncol 2017; 28: 519–27

 

Multimodale Therapie des Ösophaguskarzinoms (S.20–28)
Prisca Sturm, Matthias Biebl, Carmen Stromberger, Peter Thuss-Patience 

  1. Robert Koch Institut KiD, 10. Ausgabe 2015, Zentrum für Krebsregisterdaten, GIKED, Gesundheitsberichterstattung des Bundes
  2. Thuss-Patience P, Vecchione L, Keilholz U. Should cT2 esophageal cancer get neoadjuvant treatment before surgery? J. Thorac Dis. 2017; 9: 2819–23
  3. Porschen R, Buck A, Fischbach W, Gockel I, Görling U, Grenacher L, et al. S3-leitlinie diagnostik und therapie der plattenepithelkarzinome und adenokarzinome des ösophagus (Langversion 1.0 - September 2015, AWMF-Register nummer: 021/023OL). Z. Gastroenterol 2015; 53: 1288–347 
  4. Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJH, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 11–20 
  5. Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon J-P, Conroy T, Bouché O, Lebreton G, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29: 1715–21 
  6. Allum WH, Stenning SP, Bancewicz J, Clark PI, Langley RE. Long-term results of a randomized trial of surgery with or without preoperative chemotherapy in esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 5062–7 
  7. Ronellenfitsch U, Schwarzbach M, Hofheinz R, Kienle P, Kieser M, Slanger TE, et al. Perioperative chemo(radio)therapy versus primary surgery for resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, gastroesophageal junction, and lower esophagus. Cochrane database Syst Rev 2013; CD008107
  8. Sjoquist KM, Burmeister BH, Smithers BM, Zalcberg JR, Simes RJ, Barbour A, et al. Survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for resectable oesophageal carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12: 681–92 
  9. Moehler M, Al-Batran S-E, Andus T, Anthuber M, Arends J, Arnold D, et al. [German S3-guideline " Diagnosis and treatment of esophagogastric cancer"]. Z Gastroenterol 2011; 49: 461–531 
  10. Alderson D, Langley RE, Nankivell MG, Blazeby JM, Griffin M, Crellin A, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinoma: Results from the UK Medical Research Council randomised OEO5 trial (ISRCTN 01852072). J Clin Oncol 2015; 33: 4002
  11. Al-Batran S-E, Hofheinz RD, Pauligk C, Kopp H-G, Haag GM, Luley KB, et al. Histopathological regression after neoadjuvant docetaxel, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine in patients with resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): results from the phase 2 part of a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17: 1697–708 
  12. Al-Batran S-E, Homann N, Schmalenberg H, Kopp H-G, Haag GM, Luley KB, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil/leucovorin (FLOT) versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine (ECF/ECX) for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): A multicenter, randomized phase 3 trial. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35: 4004
  13. Cunningham D, Stenning SP, Smyth EC, Okines AF, Allum WH, Rowley S, et al. Peri-operative chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in operable oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (UK Medical Research Council ST03): primary analysis results of a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2–3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2017; 18: 357–70 
  14. van Hagen P, Hulshof MCCM, van Lanschot JJB, Steyerberg EW, Henegouwen MI van B, Wijnhoven BPL, et al. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal or Junctional Cancer. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 2074–84 
  15. Shapiro J, van Lanschot JJB, Hulshof MCCM, van Hagen P, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BPL, et al. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for oesophageal or junctional cancer (CROSS): long-term results of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16: 1090–8 
  16. Tepper J, Krasna MJ, Niedzwiecki D, Hollis D, Reed CE, Goldberg R, et al. Phase III trial of trimodality therapy with cisplatin, fluorouracil, radiotherapy, and surgery compared with surgery alone for esophageal cancer: CALGB 9781. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 1086–92 
  17. Burmeister BH, Smithers BM, Gebski V, Fitzgerald L, Simes RJ, Devitt P, et al. Surgery alone versus chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for resectable cancer of the oesophagus: a randomised controlled phase III trial. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6: 659–68 
  18. Stahl M, Walz MK, Stuschke M, Lehmann N, Meyer H-J, Riera-Knorrenschild J, et al. Phase III Comparison of Preoperative Chemotherapy Compared With Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagogastric Junction. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 851–6 
  19. Klevebro F, Alexandersson von Döbeln G, Wang N, Johnsen G, Jacobsen A-B, Friesland S, et al. A randomized clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for cancer of the oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction. Ann Oncol 2016; 27: 660–7 
  20. Stahl M, Walz MK, Riera-Knorrenschild J, Stuschke M, Sandermann A, Bitzer M, et al. Preoperative chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced adenocarcinomas of the oesophagogastric junction (POET): Long-term results of a controlled randomised trial. Eur J Cancer 2017; 81: 183–90 
  21. Leong T, Smithers BM, Michael M, Gebski V, Boussioutas A, Miller D, et al. TOPGEAR: a randomised phase III trial of perioperative ECF chemotherapy versus preoperative chemoradiation plus perioperative ECF chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (an international, intergroup trial of the AGITG/TROG/EORTC/NCIC CTG). BMC Cancer 2015; 15: 532 
  22. Herskovic A, Martz K, al-Sarraf M, Leichman L, Brindle J, Vaitkevicius V, et al. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of the esophagus. N Eng J Med 1992; 326: 1593–8 
  23. Cooper JS, Guo MD, Herskovic A, Macdonald JS, Martenson JA, Al-Sarraf M, et al. Chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced esophageal cancer: long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized trial (RTOG 85-01). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. JAMA 1999; 281: 1623–7 
  24. al-Sarraf M, Martz K, Herskovic A, Leichman L, Brindle JS, Vaitkevicius VK, et al. Progress report of combined chemoradiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in patients with esophageal cancer: an intergroup study. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15: 277–84 
  25. Stahl M, Stuschke M, Lehmann N, Meyer H-J, Walz MK, Seeber S, et al. Chemoradiation With and Without Surgery in Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 2310–7 
  26. Stahl M, Wilke H, Stuschke M, Walz MK, Fink U, Molls M, et al. Clinical response to induction chemotherapy predicts local control and long-term survival in multimodal treatment of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2005; 131: 67–72 
  27. Bedenne L, Michel P, Bouché O, Milan C, Mariette C, Conroy T, et al. Chemoradiation Followed by Surgery Compared With Chemoradiation Alone in Squamous Cancer of the Esophagus: FFCD 9102. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 1160–8 
  28. Best LMJ, Mughal M, Gurusamy KS. Non-surgical versus surgical treatment for oesophageal cancer. Cochrane database Syst Rev 2016; 3: CD011498
  29. Conroy T, Galais M-P, Raoul J-L, Bouché O, Gourgou-Bourgade S, Douillard J-Y, et al. Definitive chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX versus fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with oesophageal cancer (PRODIGE5/ACCORD17): final results of a randomised, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: 305–14 
  30. Crosby T, Hurt CN, Falk S, Gollins S, Mukherjee S, Staffurth J, et al. Chemoradiotherapy with or without cetuximab in patients with oesophageal cancer (SCOPE1): a multicentre, phase 2/3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14: 627–37 
  31. Lledo G, Huguet F, Chibaudel B, Di Fiore F, Mineur L, Galais M-P, et al. Chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX plus cetuximab in locally advanced oesophageal cancer: The GERCOR phase II trial ERaFOX. Eur J Cancer 2016; 56: 115–21 
  32. Chen C-Y, Li C-C, Chien C-R. Does higher radiation dose lead to better outcome for non-operated localized esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy? A population based propensity-score matched analysis. Radiother Oncol 2016; 120: 136–9
  33. Boone J, Hobbelink MGG, Schipper MEI, Vleggaar FP, Borel Rinkes IHM, de Haas RJ, et al. Sentinel node biopsy during thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy for advanced esophageal cancer. World J Surg Oncol 2016; 14: 117
  34. Peyre CG, Hagen JA, DeMeester SR, Altorki NK, Ancona E, Griffin SM, et al. The number of lymph nodes removed predicts survival in esophageal cancer: an international study on the impact of extent of surgical resection. Ann Surg 2008; 248: 549–56
  35. Kutup A, Nentwich MF, Bollschweiler E, Bogoevski D, Izbicki JR, Hölscher AH. What should be the gold standard for the surgical component in the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer: transthoracic versus transhiatal esophagectomy. Ann Surg 2014; 260: 1016–22 
  36. Ma Q, Liu W, Long H, Rong T, Zhang L, Lin Y, et al. Right versus left transthoracic approach for lymph node-negative esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Cardiothorac Surg 2015; 10: 123
  37. Allum WH, Bonavina L, Cassivi SD, Cuesta MA, Dong ZM, Felix VN, et al. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2014; 1325: 242–68
  38. Luketich JD, Pennathur A, Awais O, Levy RM, Keeley S, Shende M, et al. Outcomes after minimally invasive esophagectomy: review of over 1000 patients. Ann Surg 2012; 256: 95–103
  39. Kurokawa Y, Hiki N, Yoshikawa T, Kishi K, Ito Y, Ohi M, et al. Mediastinal lymph node metastasis and recurrence in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Surgery 2015; 157: 551–5
  40. Biere SSAY, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Maas KW, Bonavina L, Rosman C, Garcia JR, et al. Minimally invasive versus open oesophagectomy for patients with oesophageal cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet (London, England) 2012; 379: 1887–92
  41. Li J, Shen Y, Tan L, Feng M, Wang H, Xi Y, et al. Is minimally invasive esophagectomy beneficial to elderly patients with esophageal cancer? Surg Endosc 2015; 29: 925–30
  42. Dantoc MM, Cox MR, Eslick GD. Does minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) provide for comparable oncologic outcomes to open techniques? A systematic review. J Gastrointest Surg 2012; 16: 486–94 
  43. Luketich JD, Pennathur A, Franchetti Y, Catalano PJ, Swanson S, Sugarbaker DJ, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy: results of a prospective phase II multicenter trial-the eastern cooperative oncology group (E2202) study. Ann Surg 2015; 261: 702–7 
  44. Palazzo F, Rosato EL, Chaudhary A, Evans NR, Sendecki JA, Keith S, et al. Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy Provides Significant Survival Advantage Compared with Open or Hybrid Esophagectomy for Patients with Cancers of the Esophagus and Gastroesophageal Junction. J Am Coll Surg 2015; 220: 672–9 
  45. Chen Y, Lu Y, Wang Y, Yang H, Xia Y, Chen M, et al. Comparison of salvage chemoradiation versus salvage surgery for recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after definitive radiochemotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Dis esophagus Off. J Int Soc. Dis Esophagus 2014; 27: 134–40

 

Update zum metastasierten Merkelzellkarzinom (S.32–37)
Patrick Terheyden 

  1. Becker JC, Stang A, DeCaprio JA, Cerroni L, Lebbe C, Veness M, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017; 3: 17077
  2. Terheyden P, Becker JC. New developments in the biology and the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol 2017
  3. Becker JC, Stang A, Hausen AZ, Fischer N, DeCaprio JA, Tothill RW, et al. Epidemiology, biology and therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma: conclusions from the EU project IMMOMEC. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017
  4. Paulson KG, Park SY, Vandeven NA, Lachance K, Thomas H, Chapuis AG, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: Current US incidence and projected increases based on changing demographics. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017
  5. Youlden DR, Soyer HP, Youl PH, Fritschi L, Baade PD. Incidence and survival for Merkel cell carcinoma in Queensland, Australia, 1993-2010. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150(8): 864–72
  6. Eisemann N, Jansen L, Castro FA, Chen T, Eberle A, Nennecke A, et al. Survival with nonmelanoma skin cancer in Germany. Br J Dermatol 2016; 174(4): 778–85
  7. Strom T, Naghavi AO, Messina JL, Kim S, Torres-Roca JF, Russell J, et al. Improved local and regional control with radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck 2017; 39(1): 48–55
  8. Criscito MC, Martires KJ, Stein JA. A population-based cohort study on the association of dermatologist density and Merkel cell carcinoma survival. J Am Acad Dermatol 2017; 76(3): 570–2
  9. Harms KL, Healy MA, Nghiem P, Sober AJ, Johnson TM, Bichakjian CK, et al. Analysis of Prognostic Factors from 9387 Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cases Forms the Basis for the New 8th Edition AJCC Staging System. Ann Surg Oncol 2016; 23(11): 3564–71
  10. Miller NJ, Bhatia S, Parvathaneni U, Iyer JG, Nghiem P. Emerging and mechanism-based therapies for recurrent or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2013; 14(2): 249–63
  11. Lemos BD, Storer BE, Iyer JG, Phillips JL, Bichakjian CK, Fang LC, et al. Pathologic nodal evaluation improves prognostic accuracy in Merkel cell carcinoma: analysis of 5823 cases as the basis of the first consensus staging system. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010; 63(5): 751–61
  12. Bommareddy PK, Kaufman HL. Avelumab and other recent advances in Merkel cell carcinoma. Future Oncol 2017; 13(30): 2771–83
  13. Bhatia S, Storer BE, Iyer JG, Moshiri A, Parvathaneni U, Byrd D, et al. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Survival Analyses of 6908 Cases From the National Cancer Data Base. J Natl Cancer Inst 2016; 108(9)
  14. Asgari MM, Sokil MM, Warton EM, Iyer J, Paulson KG, Nghiem P. Effect of host, tumor, diagnostic, and treatment variables on outcomes in a large cohort with Merkel cell carcinoma. JAMA Dermatol 2014; 150(7): 716–23
  15. Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM. Understanding immunosenescence to improve responses to vaccines. Nat Immunol. 2013; 14(5): 428–36
  16. Paulson KG, Iyer JG, Blom A, Warton EM, Sokil M, Yelistratova L, et al. Systemic immune suppression predicts diminished Merkel cell carcinoma-specific survival independent of stage. J Invest Dermatol 2013; 133(3): 642–6
  17. Sahi H, Sihto H, Artama M, Koljonen V, Bohling T, Pukkala E. History of chronic inflammatory disorders increases the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma, but does not correlate with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Br J Cancer 2017; 116(2): 260–4
  18. Moshiri AS, Doumani R, Yelistratova L, Blom A, Lachance K, Shinohara MM, et al. Polyomavirus-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A More Aggressive Subtype Based on Analysis of 282 Cases Using Multimodal Tumor Virus Detection. J Invest Dermatol 2017; 137(4): 819–27
  19. Lipson EJ, Vincent JG, Loyo M, Kagohara LT, Luber BS, Wang H, et al. PD-L1 expression in the Merkel cell carcinoma microenvironment: association with inflammation, Merkel cell polyomavirus and overall survival. Cancer Immunol Res 2013; 1(1): 54–63
  20. Feldmeyer L, Hudgens CW, Ray-Lyons G, Nagarajan P, Aung PP, Curry JL, et al. Density, Distribution, and Composition of Immune Infiltrates Correlate with Survival in Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2016; 22(22): 5553–63
  21. Starrett GJ, Marcelus C, Cantalupo PG, Katz JP, Cheng J, Akagi K, et al. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Exhibits Dominant Control of the Tumor Genome and Transcriptome in Virus-Associated Merkel Cell Carcinoma. MBio 2017; 8(1)
  22. Paulson KG, Lewis CW, Redman MW, Simonson WT, Lisberg A, Ritter D, et al. Viral oncoprotein antibodies as a marker for recurrence of Merkel cell carcinoma: A prospective validation study. Cancer 2017; 123(8): 1464–74
  23. Carter MD, Gaston D, Huang WY, Greer WL, Pasternak S, Ly TY, et al. Genetic profiles of different subsets of Merkel cell carcinoma show links between combined and pure MCPyV-negative tumors. Hum Pathol 2018; 71: 117–25
  24. Harms PW, Vats P, Verhaegen ME, Robinson DR, Wu YM, Dhanasekaran SM, et al. The Distinctive Mutational Spectra of Polyomavirus-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Res 2015; 75(18): 3720–7
  25. Marcus A, Gowen BG, Thompson TW, Iannello A, Ardolino M, Deng W, et al. Recognition of tumors by the innate immune system and natural killer cells. Adv Immunol 2014; 122: 91–128
  26. Ly TY, Walsh NM, Pasternak S. The spectrum of Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, in a variety of cutaneous neoplasms, and in neuroendocrine carcinomas from different anatomical sites. Hum Pathol 2012; 43(4): 557–66
  27. Kaufman HL, Russell J, Hamid O, Bhatia S, Terheyden P, D'Angelo SP, et al. Avelumab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: a multicentre, single-group, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17(10): 1374–85
  28. Kaufman HL, Russell JS, Hamid O, Bhatia S, Terheyden P, D'Angelo SP, et al. Updated efficacy of avelumab in patients with previously treated metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma after >/=1 year of follow-up: JAVELIN Merkel 200, a phase 2 clinical trial. J Immunother Cancer 2018; 6(1):7
  29. D’Angelo SP RJ, Bhatia S, Hamid O, Mehnert J, Terheyden P, Shih KC, Brownell I, Lebbé C, Lewis KD, Linette GP, Milella M, Hennessy M, Bajars M, Zwiener I, Nghiem P. 18-month efficacy and safety update from JAVELIN Merkel 200 part A: a phase 2 study of avelumab in metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma progressed on chemotherapy.  ASCO-SITC; Jan 25-28 2018; San Francisco, USA2018
  30. Kaufman HL, Hunger M, Hennessy M, Schlichting M, Bharmal M. Nonprogression with avelumab treatment associated with gains in quality of life in metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Future Oncol 2018; 14(3): 255–66
  31. S. D’Angelo JSR, J. Hassel, C. Lebbé, B. Chmielowski, G. Rabinowits, P. Terheyden, I. Brownell, I. Zwiener, M. Bajars, M. Hennessy and H.L. Kaufman. First-line avelumab treatment in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC): preliminary data from an ongoing study.  Presented at the 53rd ASCO Annual Meeting; June 2-6, 2017, Chicago, IL, USA2017
  32. Nghiem PT, Bhatia S, Lipson EJ, Kudchadkar RR, Miller NJ, Annamalai L, et al. PD-1 Blockade with Pembrolizumab in Advanced Merkel-Cell Carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2016; 374(26): 2542–52
  33. Topalian SL BS, Hollebecque A, A Awada, JP De Boer,  RR Kudchadkar, A Goncalves, J-P Delord, UM Martens, JM Lopez Picazo, A Oaknin, WC Spanos, R Aljumaily, WH Sharfman, S Rao, I Soumaoro, ZA Cao, P Nghiem, D Schadendorf. Non-comparative, Open-label, Multiple Cohort,    Phase 1/2 Study to Evaluate Nivolumab in Patients With Virus-associated Tumors (CheckMate 358): Efficacy and Safety in Merkel Cell Carcinoma. Cancer Res 2017; 77(Suppl 13 [Abstract CT074])
  34. Rabinowits G. Is this the end of cytotoxic chemotherapy in Merkel cell carcinoma? Onco Targets Ther 2017; 10: 4803–7
  35. Nghiem P, Kaufman HL, Bharmal M, Mahnke L, Phatak H, Becker JC. Systematic literature review of efficacy, safety and tolerability outcomes of chemotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Future Oncol 2017; 13(14): 1263–79
  36. Iyer JG, Blom A, Doumani R, Lewis C, Tarabadkar ES, Anderson A, et al. Response rates and durability of chemotherapy among 62 patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Cancer Med 2016; 5(9): 2294–301
  37. Becker JC, Lorenz E, Ugurel S, Eigentler TK, Kiecker F, Pfohler C, et al. Evaluation of real-world treatment outcomes in patients with distant metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma following second-line chemotherapy in Europe. Oncotarget 2017; 8(45): 79731–41
  38. Cowey CL, Mahnke L, Espirito J, Helwig C, Oksen D, Bharmal M. Real-world treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma treated with chemotherapy in the USA. Future Oncol 2017; 13(19): 1699–710
  39. Ritter C, Fan K, Paulson KG, Nghiem P, Schrama D, Becker JC. Reversal of epigenetic silencing of MHC class I chain-related protein A and B improves immune recognition of Merkel cell carcinoma. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 21678
  40. Willmes C, Adam C, Alb M, Volkert L, Houben R, Becker JC, et al. Type I and II IFNs inhibit Merkel cell carcinoma via modulation of the Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens. Cancer Res 2012; 72(8): 2120–8
  41. Amaral T, Leiter U, Garbe C. Merkel cell carcinoma: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017

 

Psychoonkologie:  Partizipative Entscheidungsfindung (PEF) und ihre Anwendung in der Onkologie (S.38–42)
Christiane Bieber 

  1. Bundesgesetzblatt: Gesetz zur Verbesserung der Rechte von Patientinnen und Patienten. Teil 1 Nr 9. (2013). Bonn: Bundesminesterium für Gesundheit
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UPDATE: Komplementärmedizinisches Management von Nebenwirkungen und Leitsymptomen während medikamentöser Tumortherapie (S.47–51)
Peter Holzhauer 

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