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Biochemisches Rezidiv beim Prostatakarzinom:
Salvage-Radiotherapie als zweite Chance auf Heilung – aktuelle Überlegungen (S. 10–13)
N.-S. Hegemann, M. Li, C. Eze, C. Belka, U. Ganswindt
Klinik und Poliklinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Klinikum der Universität München 

  1. C. R. Pound et al. Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy. 1999 JAMA; 281: 1591–97
  2. A. J. Stephenson et al. Preoperative Nomogram Predicting the 10-Year Probability of Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy. 2006 J Natl Cancer Inst; 98: 715–17
  3. J. K. Mullins et al. The impact of anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy on cancer control: the 30-year anniversary. 2012 J Urol 188: 2219–24
  4. F. Abdollah et al. Long-term Cancer Control Outcomes in Patients with Clinically High-risk Prostate Cancer Treated with Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy: Results from a Multi-institutional Study of 1100 Patients. 2015 Eur Urol; 68: 497–505
  5. J. I. Epstein et al. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score. 2016 Eur Urol; 69: 428–35
  6. M. Bolla et al. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer: long-term results of a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22911). 2012 Lancet 380: 2018–27
  7. T. Wiegel et al. Adjuvant Radiotherapy Versus Wait-and-See After Radical Prostatectomy: 10-year Follow-up of the ARO 96-02/AUO AP 09/95 Trial. 2014 Eur Urol; 66: 243–50
  8. I. M. Thompson et al. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Pathological T3N0M0 Prostate Cancer Significantly Reduces Risk of Metastases and Improves Survival: Long-Term Follow up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. 2009 J Urol; 181: 956–62
  9. N. Mottet et al. EAU - ESTRO - SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer in European Association of Urology 2016, ed, 2016
  10. M. Wirth et al. Interdisziplinäre Leitlinie der Qualität S3 zur Früherkennung, Diagnose und Therapie der verschiedenen Stadien des Prostatakarzinoms. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie e. V. 2016, 4.0
  11. I. M. Thompson et al. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy: AUA/ASTRO Guideline. 2013 J Urol; 190: 441–49
  12. S. J. Freedland et al. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement. 2014 J Clin Oncol; 32: 3892–98
  13. D. M. Moreira et al. Predictors of secondary treatment following biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database. 2010 BJU Int; 105: 28–33
  14. B. J. Trock et al. Prostate cancer–specific survival following salvage radiotherapy vs observation in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. 2008 JAMA; 299: 2760–69
  15. T. M. Pisansky et al. Radiotherapy for isolated serum prostate specific antigen elevation after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. 2000 J Urol; 163: 845–50
  16. D. Neuhof et al. Long-Term Results and Predictive Factors of Three-Dimensional Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy for Biochemical Relapse After Prostatectomy. 2007  Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys; 67: 1411–17
  17. A. J. Stephenson et al. Salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. 2004 JAMA; 291: 1325–32
  18. A. K. Leventis et al. Local Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy: Correlation of US Features with Prostatic Fossa Biopsy Findings. 2001 Radiol; 219: 432–39
  19. J. A. Connolly et al. Local recurrence after radical prostatectomy: Characteristics in size, location, and relationship to prostate-specific antigen and surgical margins 1996 Urol; 47: 225–31
  20. G. P. Swanson et al. Predominant Treatment Failure in Postprostatectomy Patients Is Local: Analysis of Patterns of Treatment Failure in SWOG 8794. 2007 J Clin Oncol; 25: 2225–29
  21. A. J. Stephenson et al. Predicting the outcome of salvage radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. 2007 J Clin Oncol; 25: 2035–41
  22. N.-S. Hegemann et al. Risk of biochemical recurrence and timing of radiotherapy in pT3a N0 prostate cancer with positive surgical margin. 2016 Strahlentherapie und Onkologie; 192: 440–48
  23. U. Ganswindt et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer--a new standard? 2008 Eur Urol; 54: 528–42
  24. A. Karl et al. Risk and timing of biochemical recurrence in pT3aN0/Nx prostate cancer with positive surgical margin - A multicenter study. 2015 Radiother Oncol; 116: 119–24
  25. ]. N. Suardi et al. Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy on Urinary Continence Recovery After Radical Prostatectomy. 2014 Eur Urol; 65: 546–51
  26. D. F. Penson et al. 5-year urinary and sexual outcomes after radical prostatectomy: results from the prostate cancer outcomes study. 2005 J Urol; 173: 1701–05
  27. A. Briganti et al. Early Salvage Radiation Therapy Does Not Compromise Cancer Control in Patients with pT3N0 Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: Results of a Match-controlled Multi-institutional Analysis. 2012 Eur Urol; 62: 472–87
  28. N. Fossati et al. Long-term Impact of Adjuvant Versus Early Salvage Radiation Therapy in pT3N0 Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy: Results from a Multi-institutional Series. 2016 Eur Urol
  29. R. D. Tendulkar et al. Contemporary Update of a Multi-Institutional Predictive Nomogram for Salvage Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy. 2016 J Clin Oncol; 34: 3648–54
  30. D. Bartkowiak et al. The PSA-response to salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy correlates with freedom from progression and overall survival. 2016 Radiother Oncol; 118: 131–5
  31. C. R. King The Timing of Salvage Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review. 2012 Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys; 84: 104–11
  32. C. R. King The dose–response of salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis 2016 Radiother Oncol; 121: 199–203
  33. T. M. Pisansky et al. Salvage Radiation Therapy Dose Response for Biochemical Failure of Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy—A Multi-Institutional Observational Study 2016 Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys; 96: 1046–53
  34. K. S. Corbin et al. Intensity modulated radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy: Early results show no decline in urinary continence, gastrointestinal, or sexual quality of life. 2013 Pract Radiat Oncol; 3: 138–44
  35. P. Ghadjar et al. Acute Toxicity and Quality of Life After Dose-Intensified Salvage Radiation Therapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Prostatectomy: First Results of the Randomized Trial SAKK 09/10. 2015 J Clin Oncol; 33: 4158–66
  36. A. Goenka et al. Improved Toxicity Profile Following High-Dose Postprostatectomy Salvage Radiation Therapy With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy. 2011 Eur Urol; 60: 1142–48
  37. D. Pfister et al. Early salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. 2014 Eur Urol; 65: 1034–43
  38. B. J. Stish et al. Improved Metastasis-Free and Survival Outcomes With Early Salvage Radiotherapy in Men With Detectable Prostate-Specific Antigen After Prostatectomy for Prostate Cancer. 2016 J Clin Oncol; 34: 3864–71
  39. C. Carrie et al. Salvage radiotherapy with or without short-term hormone therapy for rising prostate-specific antigen concentration after radical prostatectomy (GETUG-AFU 16): a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 3 trial. 2016 Lancet Oncol; 17: 747–56
  40. W. U. Shipley et al. Radiation with or without Antiandrogen Therapy in Recurrent Prostate Cancer. 2017 NEJM; 376: 417–28
  41. C. J. Kane et al. Limited value of bone scintigraphy and computed tomography in assessing biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. 2003 Urol; 61: 607–11
  42. H. A. Vargas et al. Localizing sites of disease in patients with rising serum prostate-specific antigen up to 1 ng/ml following prostatectomy: How much information can conventional imaging provide? 2016 Urol Oncol Semin Origl Investig; 34: 482.e5–482.e10
  43. L. Budäus et al. Initial Experience of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT Imaging in High-risk Prostate Cancer Patients Prior to Radical Prostatectomy. 2016 Eur Urol; 69: 393–6
  44. A. Herlemann et al. (68)Ga-PSMA Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Provides Accurate Staging of Lymph Node Regions Prior to Lymph Node Dissection in Patients with Prostate Cancer. 2016 Eur Urol
  45. T. Maurer et al. Diagnostic Efficacy of (68)Gallium-PSMA Positron Emission Tomography Compared to Conventional Imaging for Lymph Node Staging of 130 Consecutive Patients with Intermediate to High Risk Prostate Cancer. 2016 J Urol; 195: 1436–43
  46. P. J. van Leeuwen et al. (68) Ga-PSMA has a high detection rate of prostate cancer recurrence outside the prostatic fossa in patients being considered for salvage radiation treatment. 2016 BJU Int; 117: 732–9
  47. A. Afshar-Oromieh et al. The diagnostic value of PET/CT imaging with the (68)Ga-labelled PSMA ligand HBED-CC in the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer. 2015 Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 42
  48. T. P. Shakespeare Effect of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography on the decision-making of radiation oncologists. 2015 Radiat Oncol; 10: 1–4
  49. S. Dewes et al. Integration of (68)Ga-PSMA-PET imaging in planning of primary definitive radiotherapy in prostate cancer: a retrospective study. 2016 Radiat Oncol; 11: 73
  50. F. Sterzing et al. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT: a new technique with high potential for the radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer patients. 2015 Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imag; 1–8
  51. C. Henkenberens et al. (68)Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT-based radiotherapy in locally recurrent and recurrent oligometastatic prostate cancer : Early efficacy after primary therapy. 2016 Strahlenther Onkol; 192: 431–9

Stellenwert der radikalen Prostatektomie beim metastasierten Prostatakarzinom (S. 14–19) 
A. Heidenreich, D. Pfister
Klinik für Urologie, Uro-Onkologie, Roboter-assistierte und Spezielle Urologische Chirurgie, Uniklinik Köln 

  1. Heidenreich A, Bastian PJ, Bellmunt J et al. EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. Part 1: scree-ning, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update. Eur Urol 2013; 65: 124
  2. Tzelepi V, Efstathiou E, Wen S et al. Persis¬tent, biologically meaningful prostate cancer after 1 year of androgen ablation and docetaxel treat¬ment. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29: 2574
  3. Culp SH, Schellhammer PF, Williams MB. Might men diagnosed with metastatic prosta¬te cancer benefit from definitive treatment of the primary tumor? A SEER- based study. Eur Urol 2014; 65: 1058
  4. Heidenreich A, Pfister D, Porres D. Cytoreductive radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer and low volume skeletal metastases: results of a feasibility and case-control study. J Urol. 2015 Mar; 193(3): 832–8
  5. Hussain M, Tangen CM, Berry DL, et al.  Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2013 Apr 4; 368(14): 1314–25
  6. Won AC, Gurney H, Marx G et al.Primary tre¬atment of the prostate improves local palliation in men who ultimately develop castrate-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int 2013; 112: 250
  7. Crain DS, Amling CL, Kane CJ. Palliative transurethral prostate resection for bladder outlet obstruction in patients with locally advanced pro¬state cancer. J Urol 2004; 171(2 Pt 1): 668
  8. Studer UE, Whelan P, Albrecht W et al. Im¬mediate or deferred androgen deprivation for pa-tients with prostate cancer not suitable for lo¬cal treatment with curative intent: European Or¬ganisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Trial 30891. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 1868
  9. Steinberg GD, Epstein JI, Piantadosi S et al. Management of stage D1 adenocarcinoma of the prostate: the Johns Hopkins experience 1974 to 1987. J Urol 1990; 144: 1425
  10. Thompson IM, Tangen C, Basler J, Crawford ED. Impact of previous local treatment for pro-state cancer on subsequent metastatic disease. J Urol 2002; 168: 1008
  11. Gjertson C, Asher K, Sclar J et al. Local con¬trol and long-term disease-free survival for stage D1 (T2-T4N1-N2M0) prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in the PSA era. Urology 2007; 70: 723
  12. Grimm M-O, Kamphausen H, Hugenschmidt H et al. Clinical outcome of patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer after radical prosta¬tectomy versus androgen deprivation. Eur Urol 2012; 41: 628
  13. Qin XJ, Ma CG, Ye DW et al. Tumor cytore¬duction results in better response to androgen ab-lation – a preliminary report of palliative transure¬thral resection of the prostate in metastatic hor¬mone sensitive prostate cancer. Urol Oncol 2012; 30: 145
  14. Heidenreich A, Fossati N, Suardi N, et al. The role of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy (cRP) in men with hormone-sensitive, metastatic prostate cancer (mPCA). J Clin Oncol 2017; 35suppl 6S; abstract 241

Medikamentöse Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms (S. 23–26)
M. Schenck, Urologische Klinik, KRH Robert Koch Klinikum Gehrden 

  1. Quaresma M et al. 40-year trends in an index of survival for all cancers combined and survival adjusted for age and sex for each cancer in England and Wales, 1971-2011: a population-based study. Lancet 2015; 385 (9974): 1206–1218
  2. Allemani C et al. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995-2009: analysis of individual data for 25,676,887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2). Lancet 2015; 385 (9972): 977–1010
  3. Rossi S, Baili P et al. The EUROCARE-5 study on cancer survival in Europe 1999-2007: database, quality checks and statistical analysis methods. European journal of cancer 2015
  4. Dorr M et al. Changes in prognostic and therapeutic parameters in prostate cancer from an epidemiological view over 20 years. Oncology research and treatment 2015, 38 (1–2): 8–14
  5. Pucheril D et al. The influence of physician recommendation on prostate-specific antigen screening. Urologic oncology 2015; 33 (10): 424, e421–27
  6. Sourbeer KN, Howard LE, Andriole GL, Moreira DM, Castro-Santamaria R, Freedland SJ, Vidal AC: Metabolic syndrome-like components and prostate cancer risk: results from the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) study. BJU international 2015, 115(5):736-743.
  7. Vidal AC, Williams CD, Allott EH, Howard LE, Grant DJ, McPhail M, Sourbeer KN, Hwa LP, Boffetta P, Hoyo C et al: Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and prostate cancer risk. The Prostate 2015, 75(4):430-439.
  8. Barrington WE, Schenk JM, Etzioni R, Arnold KB, Neuhouser ML, Thompson IM, Jr., Lucia MS, Kristal AR: Difference in Association of Obesity With Prostate Cancer Risk Between US African American and Non-Hispanic White Men in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA oncology 2015, 1(3):342-349.
  9. Kristal AR, Darke AK, Morris JS, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Thompson IM, Meyskens FL, Jr., Goodman GE, Minasian LM, Parnes HL et al: Baseline selenium status and effects of selenium and vitamin e supplementation on prostate cancer risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2014, 106(3):djt456.
  10. Kristal AR et al. Plasma vitamin D and prostate cancer risk: results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2014; 23 (8): 1494–1504
  11. Chandel NS, Tuveson DA: The promise and perils of antioxidants for cancer patients. The New England journal of medicine 2014; 371 (2): 177–78
  12. Rosenthal SA et al. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015; 93 (2): 294–302
  13. Tannock IF, Sternberg CN: Many men with castrate-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer should not receive chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 2016; 27 (3): 545–546
  14. Duchesne GM, Woo HH: The 'Timing of Androgen-Deprivation therapy in incurable prostate cancer' protocol (TOAD)--where are we now? Synopsis of the Victorian Cooperative Oncology Group PR 01-03 and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 03.06 clinical trial. BJU international 2014, 114 Suppl 1: 9–12
  15. Garcia-Albeniz X et al. Immediate versus deferred initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer patients with PSA-only relapse. An observational follow-up study. European journal of cancer 2015, 51 (7): 817–824
  16. Voskoboynik M et al. 'Charting a new course for prostate cancer' - currying favor for docetaxel in hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2014; 14 (11): 1253–56
  17. James ND et al. Survival with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Prostate Cancer in the "Docetaxel Era": Data from 917 Patients in the Control Arm of the STAMPEDE Trial (MRC PR08, CRUK/06/019). European urology 2015; 67 (6): 1028–38
  18. James ND et al. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015
  19. Gravis G et al. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Noncastrate Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Validation of the Glass Model and Development of a Novel Simplified Prognostic Model. European urology 2015; 68 (2): 196–204
  20. Gravis G et al: Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) Plus Docetaxel Versus ADT Alone in Metastatic Non castrate Prostate Cancer: Impact of Metastatic Burden and Long-term Survival Analysis of the Randomized Phase 3 GETUG-AFU15 Trial. European urology 2015
  21. Fitzpatrick JM et al. Optimal management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: highlights from a European Expert Consensus Panel. European journal of cancer 2014; 50 (9): 1617–27
  22. Bilen MA et al. Safety of Same-day Pegfilgrastim Administration in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Treated With Cabazitaxel With or Without Carboplatin. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2016
  23. Omlin A et al. Analysis of Side Effect Profile of Alopecia, Nail Changes, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Dysgeusia in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Docetaxel and Cabazitaxel. Clin Genitourin Cancer 2015; 13 (4): e205–208
  24. Ryan CJ et al: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (COU-AA-302): final overall survival analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. The Lancet Oncology 2015; 16 (2): 152–60
  25. Bellmunt J et al: Prior Endocrine Therapy Impact on Abiraterone Acetate Clinical Efficacy in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Post-hoc Analysis of Randomised Phase 3 Studies. European urology 2015
  26. Barkin J: Risks, benefits, and approaches to hormonal blockade in prostate cancer. Highlights from the European Association of Urology Meeting, March 20–24, 2015, Madrid, Spain. The Canadian journal of urology 2015; 22 (3): 7847–52
  27. Graff JN et al: Efficacy and safety of enzalutamide in patients 75 years or older with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from PREVAIL. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO 2015
  28. Graff JN, Gordon MJ, Beer TM: Safety and effectiveness of enzalutamide in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 2015; 16 (5): 749–54
  29. Nilsson S: Alpha-emitter radium-223 in the management of solid tumors: current status and future directions. American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book / ASCO American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting 2014: e132–139
  30. Sartor O et al: Effect of radium-223 dichloride on symptomatic skeletal events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases: results from a phase 3, double-blind, randomised trial. The Lancet Oncology 2014; 15 (7): 738–46
  31. Humm JL et al. Radium-223 in the treatment of osteoblastic metastases: a critical clinical review. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 2015; 91 (5): 898–906
  32. Lewis B et al. Radium-223 in Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Current Data and Future Prospects. Oncology 2015; 29 (7): 483–488
  33. Antonarakis ES et al Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 and Efficacy of Taxane Chemotherapy in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. JAMA oncology 2015; 1 (5): 582–591
  34. Antonarakis ES, Luo J: Prostate cancer: AR splice variant dimerization-clinical implications. Nat Rev Urol 2015; 12 (8): 431–33
  35. Sprenger C, Uo T, Plymate S: Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells: a coming of age for AR splice variants? Ann Oncol 2015; 26(9): 1805–7
  36. Sternberg CN et al. Abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy: final analysis of a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15 (11): 1263–68
  37. Joshua AM et al. Safety of enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel: expanded access in North America. The Prostate 2015; 75 (8): 836–44
  38. Qu F et al. Association of AR-V7 and Prostate-Specific Antigen RNA Levels in Blood with Efficacy of Abiraterone Acetate and Enzalutamide Treatment in Men with Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2017; 23 (3): 726–34
  39. Differential Side Effects Profile in mCRPC Patients Treated With Abiraterone or Enzalutamide: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2016, 14(4 Suppl 5):14-15.
  40. Jayaram A, Attard G: Prostate cancer: Cabazitaxel-a key therapeutic option in prostate cancer. Nat Rev Urol 2015; 12 (6): 312–13
  41. Hofheinz RD et al. Quality of life and pain relief in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer on cabazitaxel: the non-interventional 'QoLiTime' study. BJU Int 2016
  42. Leibowitz-Amit R et al. Changes in plasma biomarkers following treatment with cabozantinib in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a post hoc analysis of an extension cohort of a phase II trial. J Transl Med 2016; 14:12
  43. Smith M et al. Phase III Study of Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: COMET-1. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34 (25): 3005–13

Gastrointestinale Stromatumoren (S. 33–39)
P. Reichardt, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Klinik für Interdisziplinäre Onkologie, Sarkomzentrum Berlin-Brandenburg 

  1. Cho MY et al. Current Trends in the Epidemiological and Pathological Characteristics of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Korea, 2003-2004. J Korean Med Sci 2010; 25: 853–62
  2. Kim KM et al. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Koreans: It's Incidence and the Clinical, Pathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings. J Korean Med Sci 2005; 20: 977–84
  3. Tran T et al. The Epidemiology of Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: An Analysis of 1,458 Cases from 1992 to 2000. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 162–68
  4. Chompret A et al. PDGFRA germline mutation in a family with multiple cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Gastroenterol 2004; 126 (1): 318–21
  5. Thalheimer A et al. Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors caused by the novel KIT exon 17 germline mutation N822Y. Am J Surg Pathol 2008; 32: 1560–65
  6. Miettinen M et al. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis 1: a clinicopathologic and molecular genetic study of 45 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30: 90–96
  7. Novelli M et al. DOG1 and CD117 are the antibodies of choice in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Histopathol 2010; 57: 259–70
  8. Heinrich MC et al. Biology and genetic aspects of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: KIT activation and cytogenetic alterations. Hum Pathol 2002; 33: 484–95
  9. Zhang L et al. Gastric Stromal Tumors in Carney Triad Are Different Clinically, Pathologically, and Behaviorally From Sporadic Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Findings in 104 Cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2010; 34: 53–64
  10. Stratakis CA and Carney JA. The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med 2009; 266: 43–52
  11. Pasini B et al. Clinical and molecular genetics of patients with the Carney-Stratakis syndrome and germline mutations of the genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD. Eur J Hum Genet 2008; 16: 79–8
  12. Hoda KM et al.  EUS-guided sampling of suspected GI stromal tumors. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 69: 1218–23
  13. Choi H et al. Correlation of computed tomography and positron emission tomography in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor treated at a single institution with imatinib mesylate: proposal of new computed tomography response criteria. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25(13): 1753–59
  14. Demetri GD et al. Efficacy and safety of imatinib mesylate in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 472–80
  15. Blanke CD et al. Long-term results from a randomized phase II trial of standard- versus higher-dose imatinib mesylate for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors expressing KIT. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 620–25
  16. Demetri GD et al. Long-term disease control in advanced GIST with imatinib: 10-year outcomes from SWOG Phase III Intergroup trial S0033. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32: 5s (suppl; abstr 10508)
  17. Verweij J et al. Progression-free survival in gastrointestinal stromal tumours with high-dose imatinib: randomized trial. Lancet 2004; 364: 1127–34
  18. Blanke CD et al. Phase III randomized, intergroup trial assessing imatinib mesylate at two dose levels in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours expressing the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase: S0033. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 626–32
  19. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Meta-Analysis Group (MetaGIST). Comparison of two doses of imatinib for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a meta-analysis of 1,640 patients. J Clin Oncol 2010 Mar 1; 28 (7): 1247–53
  20. Blay JY et al. Prospective multicentric randomized phase III study of imatinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours comparing interruption versus continuation of treatment beyond 1 year: the French Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 1107–13
  21. Patrikidou A et al. Influence of imatinib interruption and rechallenge on the residual disease in patients with advanced GIST: results of the BFR14 prospective French Sarcoma Group randomised, phase III trial. Ann Oncol 2013 Apr; 24 (4): 1087–93
  22. ESMO/European Sarcoma Network Working Group. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2014 Sep; 25 Suppl 3: iii21–6
  23. Demetri GD et al. Efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after failure of imatinib: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 368: 1329–38
  24. George, S et al. Clinical evaluation of continuous daily dosing of sunitinib malate in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour after imatinib failure. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45: 1959−68
  25. Reichardt P et al. Clinical outcomes of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Safety and efficacy in a worldwide treatment-use trial of sunitinib. Cancer 2015; 9: 1405–13
  26. Reichardt P et al. Correlation of KIT and PDGFRA mutational status with clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor treated with sunitinib in a worldwide treatment-use trial. BMC Cancer 2016; 16: 22
  27. George S, Wang Q, Heinrich MC et al. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic and/or unresectable GI stromal tumor after failure of imatinib and sunitinib: a multicenter phase II trial. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30 (19): 2401–07
  28. Demetri GD et al. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib (GRID): an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2013; 381(9863): 295–302
  29. Kang YK et al. Resumption of imatinib to control metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib (RIGHT): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14: 1175–82
  30. Miettinen M and Lasota J. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Pathology and prognosis at different sites. Semin Diagn Pathol 2006; 23: 70–83
  31. Joensuu H et al. Risk of recurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumour after surgery: an analysis of pooled population-based cohorts. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 265–74
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  33. Joensuu H et al. One vs Three Years of Adjuvant Imatinib for Operable Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor. A Randomized Trial. JAMA 2012; 307: 1265–72
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Behandlung des fortgeschrittenen Mammakarzinoms:
Früher Einsatz von Eribulin ab der 2. Therapielinie hat sich bewährt (S. 51) 

  1. Fachinformation HALAVEN®, Stand August 2016
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