Das Medizinportal


Systemtherapie beim Mammakarzinom

Nadia Harbeck (S. 10)


  1. AGO-Kommission “Mamma”. Empfehlungen 2016 für die Behandlung des primären und des metastasierten Mammakarzinoms: www.ago-online.de
  2. Baselga J, Campone M, Piccart M, Burris HA 3rd, Rugo HS, Sahmoud T, Noguchi S, Gnant M, Pritchard KI, Lebrun F, Beck JT, Ito Y, Yardley D, Deleu I, Perez A, Bachelot T, Vittori L, Xu Z, Mukhopadhyay P, Lebwohl D, Hortobagyi GN. Everolimus in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 9;366(6):520-9. 
  3. Blackwell KL, Burstein HJ, Storniolo AM, Rugo HS, Sledge G, Aktan G, Ellis C, Florance A, Vukelja S, Bischoff J, Baselga J, O'Shaughnessy J. Overall survival benefit with lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer: final results from the EGF104900 Study. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 20;30(21):2585-92.
  4. Bossung V, Harbeck N. Angiogenesis inhibitors in the management of breast cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Feb;22(1):79-86.
  5. Cardoso F, Costa A, Norton L, Senkus E, Aapro M, André F, Barrios CH, Bergh J, Biganzoli L, Blackwell KL, Cardoso MJ, Cufer T, El Saghir N, Fallowfield L, Fenech D, Francis P, Gelmon K, Giordano SH, Gligorov J, Goldhirsch A, Harbeck N, Houssami N, Hudis C, Kaufman B, Krop I, Kyriakides S, Lin UN, Mayer M, Merjaver SD, Nordström EB, Pagani O, Partridge A, Penault-Llorca F, Piccart MJ, Rugo H, Sledge G, Thomssen C, Van't Veer L, Vorobiof D, Vrieling C, West N, Xu B, Winer E; European School of Oncology; European Society of Medical Oncology. ESO-ESMO 2nd international consensus guidelines for advanced breast cancer (ABC2). Breast. 2014 Oct;23(5):489-502.
  6. Cristofanilli M, Turner NC, Bondarenko I, Ro J, Im SA, Masuda N, Colleoni M, DeMichele A, Loi S, Verma S, Iwata H, Harbeck N, Zhang K, Theall KP, Jiang Y, Bartlett CH, Koehler M, Slamon D. Fulvestrant plus palbociclib versus fulvestrant plus placebo for treatment of hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer that progressed on previous endocrine therapy (PALOMA-3): final analysis of the multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2016 Mar 2.
  7. Coates AS, Winer EP, Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Gnant M, Piccart-Gebhart M, Thürlimann B, Senn HJ; Panel Members. -Tailoring therapies-improving the management of early breast cancer: St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2015. Ann Oncol. 2015 Aug;26(8):1533-46.
  8. Colleoni M, Sun Z, Price KN, Karlsson P, Forbes JF, Thürlimann B, Gianni L, Castiglione M, Gelber RD, Coates AS, Goldhirsch A. Annual Hazard Rates of Recurrence for Breast Cancer During 24 Years of Follow-Up: Results From the International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials I to V. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Mar 20;34(9):927-35. 
  9. Couch FJ, Hart SN, Sharma P, Toland AE, Wang X, Miron P, Olson JE, Godwin AK, Pankratz VS, Olswold C, Slettedahl S, Hallberg E, Guidugli L, Davila JI, Beckmann MW, Janni W, Rack B, Ekici AB, Slamon DJ, Konstantopoulou I, Fostira F, Vratimos A, Fountzilas G, Pelttari LM, Tapper WJ, Durcan L, Cross SS, Pilarski R, Shapiro CL, Klemp J, Yao S, Garber J, Cox A, Brauch H, Ambrosone C, Nevanlinna H, Yannoukakos D, Slager SL, Vachon CM, Eccles DM, Fasching PA. Inherited mutations in 17 breast cancer susceptibility genes among a large triple-negative breast cancer cohort unselected for family history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Feb 1;33(4):304-11.
  10. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), Coleman R, Powles T, Paterson A, Gnant M, Anderson S, Diel I, Gralow J, von Minckwitz G, Moebus V, Bergh J, Pritchard KI, Bliss J, Cameron D, Evans V, Pan H, Peto R, Bradley R, Gray R. Adjuvant bisphosphonate treatment in early breast cancer: meta-analyses of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2015 Oct 3;386(10001):1353-61.
  11. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), Dowsett M, Forbes JF, Bradley R, Ingle J, Aihara T, Bliss J, Boccardo F, Coates A, Coombes RC, Cuzick J, Dubsky P, Gnant M, Kaufmann M, Kilburn L, Perrone F, Rea D, Thürlimann B, van de Velde C, Pan H, Peto R, Davies C, Gray R. Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2015 Oct 3;386(10001):1341-52.
  12. Finn RS, Crown JP, Lang I, Boer K, Bondarenko IM, Kulyk SO, Ettl J, Patel R, Pinter T, Schmidt M, Shparyk Y, Thummala AR, Voytko NL, Fowst C, Huang X, Kim ST, Randolph S, Slamon DJ. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone as first-line treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18): a randomised phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Jan;16(1):25-35
  13. Francis PA, Regan MM, Fleming GF, Láng I, Ciruelos E, Bellet M, Bonnefoi HR, Climent MA, Da Prada GA, Burstein HJ, Martino S, Davidson NE, Geyer CE Jr, Walley BA, Coleman R, Kerbrat P, Buchholz S, Ingle JN, Winer EP, Rabaglio-Poretti M, Maibach R, Ruepp B, Giobbie-Hurder A, Price KN, Colleoni M, Viale G, Coates AS, Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD; SOFT Investigators; International Breast Cancer Study Group. Adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 29;372(5):436-46. 
  14. Gluz O, Nitz UA, Christgen M, Kates RE, Shak S, Clemens M, Kraemer S, Aktas B, Kuemmel S, Reimer T, Kusche M, Heyl V, Lorenz-Salehi F, Just M, Hofmann D, Degenhardt T, Liedtke C, Svedman C, Wuerstlein R, Kreipe HH, Harbeck N. West German Study Group Phase III PlanB Trial: First Prospective Outcome Data for the 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay and Concordance of Prognostic Markers by Central and Local Pathology Assessment. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 29.
  15. Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Stoeger H, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Heck D, Menzel C, Jakesz R, Seifert M, Hubalek M, Pristauz G, Bauernhofer T, Eidtmann H, Eiermann W, Steger G, Kwasny W, Dubsky P, Hochreiner G, Forsthuber EP, Fesl C, Greil R; Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group, Vienna, Austria. Adjuvant endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: 62-month follow-up from the ABCSG-12 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011 Jul;12(7):631-41.
  16. Gnant M, Pfeiler G, Dubsky PC, Hubalek M, Greil R, Jakesz R, Wette V, Balic M, Haslbauer F, Melbinger E, Bjelic-Radisic V, Artner-Matuschek S, Fitzal F, Marth C, Sevelda P, Mlineritsch B, Steger GG, Manfreda D, Exner R, Egle D, Bergh J, Kainberger F, Talbot S, Warner D, Fesl C, Singer CF; Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group. Adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer (ABCSG-18): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):433-43.
  17. Harbeck N, Wuerstlein R. Optimal sequencing of anti-HER2 therapy throughout the continuum of HER2-positive breast cancer: evidence and clinical considerations. Drugs. 2013 Oct;73(15):1665-80.
  18. Knauer M, Filipits M, Dubsky P. Late recurrences in early breast cancer: for whom and how long is endocrine therapy beneficial? Breast Care (Basel). 2014 May;9(2):97-100. 
  19. Mackey JR, Pie?kowski T, Crown J, Sadeghi S, Martin M, Chan A, Saleh M, Sehdev S, Provencher L, Semiglazov V, Press MF, Sauter G, Lindsay M, Houé V, Buyse M, Drevot P, Hitier S, Bensfia S, Eiermann W; Translational Research In Oncology (TRIO)/ Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG)-005 investigators. Long-term outcomes after adjuvant treatment of sequential versus combination docetaxel with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer - BCIRG-005 randomized trial. Ann Oncol. 2016 Mar 2.
  20. Metzger Filho O, Giobbie-Hurder A, Mallon E, Gusterson B, Viale G, Winer EP, Thürlimann B, Gelber RD, Colleoni M, Ejlertsen B, Debled M, Price KN, Regan MM, Coates AS, Goldhirsch A. Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Sep 1;33(25):2772-9. 
  21. Miles DW, Diéras V, Cortés J, Duenne AA, Yi J, O'Shaughnessy J. First-line bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: pooled and subgroup analyses of data from 2447 patients. Ann Oncol. 2013 Nov;24(11):2773-80.
  22. Moebus V, Jackisch C, Lueck HJ, du Bois A, Thomssen C, Kurbacher C, Kuhn W, Nitz U, Schneeweiss A, Huober J, Harbeck N, von Minckwitz G, Runnebaum IB, Hinke A, Kreienberg R, Konecny GE, Untch M. Intense dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide compared with conventionally scheduled chemotherapy in high-risk primary breast cancer: mature results of an AGO phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jun 10;28(17):2874-80. 
  23. Pagani O, Regan MM, Francis PA; TEXT and SOFT Investigators; International Breast Cancer Study Group. Exemestane with ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 2;371(14):1358-9.
  24. Perou CM, Sørlie T, Eisen MB, van de Rijn M, Jeffrey SS, Rees CA, Pollack JR, Ross DT, Johnsen H, Akslen LA, Fluge O, Pergamenschikov A, Williams C, Zhu SX, Lønning PE, Børresen-Dale AL, Brown PO, Botstein D. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):747-52.
  25. Sparano JA, Gray RJ, Makower DF, Pritchard KI, Albain KS, Hayes DF, Geyer CE Jr, Dees EC, Perez EA, Olson JA Jr, Zujewski J, Lively T, Badve SS, Saphner TJ, Wagner LI, Whelan TJ, Ellis MJ, Paik S, Wood WC, Ravdin P, Keane MM, Gomez Moreno HL, Reddy PS, Goggins TF, Mayer IA, Brufsky AM, Toppmeyer DL, Kaklamani VG, Atkins JN, Berenberg JL, Sledge GW. Prospective Validation of a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Nov 19;373(21):2005-14. 
  26. Sparano JA, Zhao F, Martino S, Ligibel JA, Perez EA, Saphner T, Wolff AC, Sledge GW Jr, Wood WC, Davidson NE. Long-Term Follow-Up of the E1199 Phase III Trial Evaluating the Role of Taxane and Schedule in Operable Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jul 20;33(21):2353-60. 
  27. Stopeck AT, Lipton A, Body JJ, Steger GG, Tonkin K, de Boer RH, Lichinitser M, Fujiwara Y, Yardley DA, Viniegra M, Fan M, Jiang Q, Dansey R, Jun S, Braun A. Denosumab compared with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind study. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Dec 10;28(35):5132-9. 
  28. Swain SM, Baselga J, Kim SB, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, Ciruelos E, Ferrero JM, Schneeweiss A, Heeson S, Clark E, Ross G, Benyunes MC, Cortés J; CLEOPATRA Study Group. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 19;372(8):724-34. 
  29. Tolaney SM, Barry WT, Dang CT, Yardley DA, Moy B, Marcom PK, Albain KS, Rugo HS, Ellis M, Shapira I, Wolff AC, Carey LA, Overmoyer BA, Partridge AH, Guo H, Hudis CA, Krop IE, Burstein HJ, Winer EP. Adjuvant paclitaxel and trastuzumab for node-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 8;372(2):134-41. 
  30. Van Poznak CH, Temin S, Yee GC, Janjan NA, Barlow WE, Biermann JS, Bosserman LD, Geoghegan C, Hillner BE, Theriault RL, Zuckerman DS, Von Roenn JH; American Society of Clinical Oncology. American Society of Clinical Oncology executive summary of the clinical practice guideline update on the role of bone-modifying agents in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 20;29(9):1221-7. 
  31. Verma S, Miles D, Gianni L, Krop IE, Welslau M, Baselga J, Pegram M, Oh DY, Diéras V, Guardino E, Fang L, Lu MW, Olsen S, Blackwell K; EMILIA Study Group. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer.N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 8;367(19):1783-91.
  32. von Minckwitz G, Untch M, Blohmer JU, Costa SD, Eidtmann H, Fasching PA, Gerber B, Eiermann W, Hilfrich J, Huober J, Jackisch C, Kaufmann M, Konecny GE, Denkert C, Nekljudova V, Mehta K, Loibl S. Definition and Impact of Pathologic Complete Response on Prognosis After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Various Intrinsic Breast Cancer Subtypes. J Clin Oncol. 2012 30(15):1796-804. 
  33. von Minckwitz G, Schneeweiss A, Loibl S, Salat C, Denkert C, Rezai M, Blohmer JU, Jackisch C, Paepke S, Gerber B, Zahm DM, Kümmel S, Eidtmann H, Klare P, Huober J, Costa S, Tesch H, Hanusch C, Hilfrich J, Khandan F, Fasching PA, Sinn BV, Engels K, Mehta K, Nekljudova V, Untch M. Neoadjuvant carboplatin in patients with triple-negative and HER2-positive early breast cancer (GeparSixto; GBG 66): a randomised phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Jun;15(7):747-56
  34. Yin W, Jiang Y, Shen Z, Shao Z, Lu J. Trastuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials.PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21030. 

Hot Topics in der adjuvanten Radiotherapie des brusterhaltend operierten Mammakarzinoms

Petra Feyer (S. 18)


  1. AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie „Diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary or metastasic breast cancer – adjuvant radiotherapy“ www.aoorg 2016 www.ago-online.de
  2. Advani, P. P., K. V. Ballman, T. J. Dockter, G. Colon-Otero, and E. A. Perez. 2016. “Long-Term Cardiac Safety Analysis of NCCTG N9831 (Alliance) Adjuvant Trastuzumab Trial..” Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 34(6):581–87.
  3. Bane, A. L. et al. 2014. “Tumor Factors Predictive of Response to Hypofractionated Radiotherapy in a Randomized Trial Following Breast Conserving Therapy..” Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO 25(5):992–98.
  4. Boekel, N. B. et al. 2014. “Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality After Treatment for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast.” JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 106(8):dju156–56.
  5. Caussa, L. et al. 2011. “The Acute Skin and Heart Toxicity of a Concurrent Association of Trastuzumab and Locoregional Breast Radiotherapy Including Internal Mammary Chain: a Single-Institution Study.” European Journal of Cancer 47(1):65–73.
  6. Ciervide R, Dhage S, Guth A, et al: Five year outcome of 145 patients with ductalcarcinoma in situ (DCIS) after accelerated breast radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 83:e 159-e164.
  7. Dellas K, Vonthein R, Zimmer J, et al.: ARO study Group: Hypofractionation with simultaneous integrated boost for early breast cancer: results of the German ,ulticenter phase II trial (ARO-2010-01). Strahlenther Onkol 2014; 190: 646-653.
  8. Donker, M. et al. 2014. “Radiotherapy or Surgery of the Axilla After a Positive Sentinel Node in Breast Cancer (EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS): a Randomised, Multicentre, Open-Label, Phase 3 Non-Inferiority Trial..” The Lancet Oncology 15(12):1303–10.
  9. Fisher CM, Rabinovitch R.: Frontiers in radiotherapy for early-stage invasive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32: 2894-2901.
  10. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). 2010. “Overview of the Randomized Trials of Radiotherapy in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast.” JNCI Monographs 2010(41):162–77.
  11. Elshof, L. E. et al. 2015. “Feasibility of a Prospective, Randomised, Open-Label, International Multicentre, Phase III, Non-Inferiority Trial to Assess the Safety of Active Surveillance for Low Risk Ductal Carcinoma in Situ - the LORD Study..” European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 51(12):1497–1510.
  12. Fitzal, F. et al. 2015. “The Genomic Expression Test EndoPredict Is a Prognostic Tool for Identifying Risk of Local Recurrence in Postmenopausal Endocrine Receptor-Positive, Her2neu-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Randomised Within the Prospective ABCSG 8 Trial.” British Journal of Cancer 112(8):1405–10.
  13. Francis, A. et al. 2015. “Addressing Overtreatment of Screen Detected DCIS; the LORIS Trial.” European Journal of Cancer 51(16):2296–2303.
  14. Giuliano, A. E. et al. 2010. “Locoregional Recurrence After Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection with or Without Axillary Dissection in Patients with Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases: the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 Randomized Trial..” Annals of Surgery 252(3):426–32–discussion432–3.
  15. Giuliano, A. E. et al. 2011. “Axillary Dissection vs No Axillary Dissection in Women with Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: a Randomized Clinical Trial..” JAMA 305(6):569–75.
  16. Halyard MY, Pisansky TM, Druck AC, et al.: Radiotherapy and adjuvant trastuzumab in operable breast cancer: tolerably and adverse event data from the NCCTG Phase III Trial N9831. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 2638-2644.
  17. Hathout L, Hijal T, Theberge V, et al: Hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Int J Radiat Oncol biol Phys 2013; 87: 1058-106.
  18. Haviland JS, Owen JR, Dower JA, et al.: START Trialist`Group: The UK Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) trials of radiotherapy hypofractionation for treatment of early breast cancer: 10-year follow up results of two randomised controlled trials. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14: 1086-1094.
  19. Hennequin C, Dubray B: Alpha/beta ratio revisited in the era of hypofractionation. Cancer Radiother 2013; 17: 344-348.
  20. Hennequin C, Bossard N, Servagi-Vernat S, et al 2013. Ten-Year Survival Results of a Randomized Trial of Irradiation of Internal Mammary Nodes After Mastectomy. International journal of radiation oncology biology physics. Aug1, 86 (5):860-6, doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.03.021
  21. Jagsi, R. et al. 2014. “Radiation Field Design in the ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) Trial..” Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 32(32):3600–3606.
  22. Jeyakumar A, Younis T: Tratuzumab for HER 2-positive metastatic breast cancer: clinical and economic considerations. Clin Med Insigts Oncol 2012; 6: 179-187.
  23. Krug, D. and R. Souchon. 2015. “Radiotherapy of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.” Breast Care 10(4):259–64.
  24. Lynge, E. et al. 2014. “Variation in Detection of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ During Screening Mammography: a Survey Within the International Cancer Screening Network.” European Journal of Cancer 50(1):185–92.
  25. McCormick, B. et al. 2015. “RTOG 9804: a Prospective Randomized Trial for Good-Risk Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Comparing Radiotherapy with Observation.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 33(7):709–15.
  26. Merrill, A. L., L. Esserman, and M. Morrow. 2016. “CLINICAL DECISIONS. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ..” The New England journal of medicine 374(4):390–92.
  27. Narod, S. A., J. Iqbal, V. Giannakeas, V. Sopik, and P. Sun. 2015. “Breast Cancer Mortality After a Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.” JAMA Oncology 1(7):888–89.
  28. Nielsson C, Valachis A.: The role of boost and hypofractionation as adjuvant radiotherapy in patinets with DCIS: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Radiother Oncol 2015; Jan; 114(1): 50-55. 
  29. Owen, J. R. et al. 2006. “Effect of Radiotherapy Fraction Size on Tumour Control in Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer After Local Tumour Excision: Long-Term Results of a Randomised Trial..” Lancet Oncology 7(6):467–71.
  30. Poortmans, P. M. et al. 2015. “Internal Mammary and Medial Supraclavicular Irradiation in Breast Cancer.” The New England journal of medicine 373(4):317–27.
  31. Reimer, T., S. Hartmann, A. Stachs, and B. Gerber. 2014. “Local Treatment of the Axilla in Early Breast Cancer: Concepts From the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-04 to the Planned Intergroup Sentinel Mamma Trial.” Breast Care 9(2):1–1.
  32. Riemer AB, Zieleinski CC: Use of trastuzumab in the therapy of breast cancer. Ther Umsch 2008; 65: 217-222.
  33. Sautter-Bihl ML, Sedlmayer F, Budach W, et al. DEGRO practical guidelines: radiotherapy of breast cancer III-radiotherapy of the lymphatic pathways. Strahlenther. Onkol. 204; 190:342-51
  34. Sautter-Bihl ML, Sedlmayer F, Budach W, Dunst J, Feyer P, Fietkau R, Haase W, Harms W, Piroth MD, Souchon R, Wenz F, Sauer R; Breast Cancer Expert Panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). Strahlenther Onkol. 2014 Oct; 190 (10):861-3, doi: 10. 1007/s00066-014-0755-5. How nescience may obscure evidence. Strahlenther Onkol. 2014 Oct; 190(10):861-3. doi: 10 1007/s00066-014-0755-5.
  35. Sedlmayer, F. et al. 2013. “DEGRO Practical Guidelines: Radiotherapy ofBreast Cancer I: Radiotherapy Following Breast Conserving Therapy for Invasive Breast Cancer..” Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 189(10):825–33.
  36. Solin, L. J. et al. 2013. “A Multigene Expression Assay to Predict Local Recurrence Risk for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast.” JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 105(10):701–10.
  37. Subhedar, P., C. Olcese, S. Patil, M. Morrow, and K. J. Van Zee. 2015. “Decreasing Recurrence Rates for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ: Analysis of 2996 Women Treated with Breast-Conserving Surgery Over 30 Years..” Annals of Surgical Oncology 22(10):3273–81.
  38. Suh, W. W., B. E. Hillner, L. J. Pierce, and J. A. Hayman. 2005. “Cost-Effectiveness of Radiation Therapy Following Conservative Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast.” International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics 61(4):1054–61.Thames HD, Bentzen SM, Turesson I. et al. : time-dose factors in radiotherapy: a review of the human data. Radiother Oncol 1990; 19:219-235.
  39. Thames HD, Withers HR, Peters LJ, Fletscher GH: changes in early and late radiation responses with altered dose fractionation: implications for dose-survival relationships. Int. J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1982; 8:219-222.
  40. Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group: BIG 3-07: A randomised phase III study of radiation doses and fractionation schedules for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. www.rttrialsqa.org.uk/rttqa/
  41. Thorsen, L. B. J. et al. 2016. “DBCG-IMN: a Population-Based Cohort Study on the Effect of Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Early Node-Positive Breast Cancer..” Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 34(4):314–20.
  43. Van Zee, K. J. et al. 2003. “A Nomogram for Predicting the Likelihood of Additional Nodal Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients with a Positive Sentinel Node Biopsy.” Annals of Surgical Oncology 10(10):1140–51.
  44. Virnig, B. A., T. M. Tuttle, T. Shamliyan, and R. L. Kane. 2010. “Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast: a Systematic Review of Incidence, Treatment, and Outcomes.” JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 102(3):170–78.Wai Es, Lesperance ML, Alexander CS, et al: Effect of radiotherapy boost and hypofractionation on outcomes in ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer 2011; 117: 54-62.
  45. Whelan TJ, Pignol JP, Levine MN, et al. : Long-term results of hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 513-520.
  46. Whelan, T. J. et al. 2015. “Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.” The N Engl J Med 373(4):307–16.
  47. Williamson D, Dinniwell R, Fung S, et al.: Local control with conventional and hypofractionated adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in-situ. Radiother Oncol 95: 317-320, 2010.
  48. Yarnold, J. et al. 2005. “Fractionation Sensitivity and Dose Response of Late Adverse Effects in the Breast After Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Randomised Trial.” Radiotherapy and Oncology 75(1):9–17.
  49. Yarnold, J., S. M. Bentzen, C. Coles, and J. Haviland. 2011. “Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiotherapy for Women with Early Breast Cancer: Myths and Realities..” International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 79(1):1–9.

Die plastische Rekonstruktion der Brust

Manuel Hrabowski (S. 25)


  1. Gerber B, Marx M, Untch M, Faridi A: Breast reconstruction following cancer treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2015; 112: 593–600.
  2. Atisha DM, Rushing CN, Samsa GP, et al.: A national snapshot of satisfaction with breast cancer procedures. Ann Surg Oncol 2015; 22: 361–9.
  3. Alderman AK, Kuhn LE, Lowery JC, Wilkins EG: Does patient satisfaction with breast reconstruction change over time? Two-year results of the Michigan Breast Reconstruction Outcomes Study. J Am Coll Surg. 2007 Jan; 204(1):7-12.
  4. Gabriel SE, Woods JE, O’fallon WM et al (1997) Complications leading to surgery after breast im-plantation. N Engl J Med 336:677–682
  5. Behranwala KA, Dua RS, Ross GM et al (2006) The influence of radiotherapy on capsule formation and aesthetic outcome after immediate breast re¬construction using biodimensional anatomical ex-pander implants. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 59:1043–1051
  6. Cemal Y, Albornoz CR, Disa JJ, et al.: A paradigm shift in U.S. breast reconstruction: Part 2. The influence of changing mastectomy patterns on reconstructive rate and method. Plast Reconstr Surg 2013; 131: 320e–6e.
  7. Platt J, Baxter N, Zhong T: Breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. CMAJ. 2011 Dec 13;183(18):2109-16
  8. Ho G, Nguyen TJ, Shahabi A, Hwang BH, Chan LS, Wong AK.: A systematic review and meta-analysis of complications associated with acellular dermal matrix-assisted breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2012 Apr;68(4):346-56.
  9. Weichman KE, Wilson SC, Weinstein AL, et al.: The use of acellular dermal matrix in immediate two-stage tissue expander breast reconstruction Plast Reconstr Surg 2012; 129: 1049–58.
  10. Ho G, Nguyen TJ, Shahabi A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of complications associated with acellular dermal matrix-assisted breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 2012;68:346-56.
  11. Chun YS, Verma K, Rosen H, et al. Implant-based breast reconstruction using acellular dermal matrix and the risk of postoperative complications. Plast Reconstr Surg 2010;125:429-36.
  12. Kim JY, Davila AA, Persing S, et al. A meta-analysis of human acellular dermis and submuscular tissue expander breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;129:28-41.
  13. Czerny, V. Plastischer Ersatz der Brustdrüse durch ein Lipom. Drei Plastische Operationen. Verhandl. Deutsch. Gesellsch. Chir. 24 (1895) 216 – 217
  14. Olivari N (1979) Use of thirty latissimus dorsi flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg 64:654–661
  15. Hartrampf CR, Scheflan M, Black PW (1982) Breast reconstruction with a transverse abdominal island flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 69:216–225
  16. Garvey PB, Buchel EW, Pockaj BA et al (2006) DIEP and pedicled TRAM flaps: a comparison of outco¬mes. Plast Reconstr Surg 117:1711–1720
  17. Koshima I, Soeda S (1989) Inferior epigastric arte¬ry skin flaps without rectus abdominis muscle. Br J Plast Surg 42:645–648
  18. Allen RJ, Treece P. Deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg 1994;32:32-8.
  19. Acosta R, Smit JM, Audolfsson T et al (2011) A clini¬cal review of 9 years of free perforator flap breast reconstructions: an analysis of 675 flaps and the influence of new techniques on clinical practice. J Reconstr Microsurg 27:91–98
  20. Bosc R, Hivelin M, Benjoar MD et al (2010) Preo¬perative angiographic CT-scan for perforator flap transfer. Clinical applications in an emergency unit of reconstructive surgery: four clinical cases. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 55:307–312
  21. Seidenstucker K, Munder B, Richrath P et al (2010) A prospective study using color flow duplex ultra¬sonography for abdominal perforator mapping in microvascular breast reconstruction. Med Sci Mo¬nit 16:MT65–70
  22. Newman TM, Vasile J, Levine JL et al (2010) Perfo¬rator flap magnetic resonance angiography for re¬constructive breast surgery: a review of 25 deep inferior epigastric and gluteal perforator arte¬ry flap patients. J Magn Reson Imaging 31:1176–1184
  23. Masia J, Kosutic D, Cervelli D et al (2010) In search of the ideal method in perforator mapping: non¬contrast magnetic resonance imaging. J Reconstr Microsurg 26:29–35
  24. Allen RJ, Tucker C Jr. Superior gluteal artery perforator free flap for breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 1995;95:1207-12.
  25. Allen RJ, Levine JL, Granzow JW. The in-the-crease inferior gluteal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006;118:333-9.
  26. Papp C, Windhofer C, Gruber S (2007) Breast Reconstruction With the Fasciocutaneous Infragluteal Free Flap (FCI). Ann Plast Surg. 2007 Feb;58(2):131-6.
  27. Schoeller T, Wechselberger G. Breast reconstruction by the free transverse gracilis (TUG) flap. Br J Plast Surg 2004;57:481-2. 
  28. Allen RJ, Haddock NT, Ahn CY, et al. Breast reconstruction with the profunda artery perforator flap. Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;129:16e-23e.
  29. Fischer JP, Wes AM, Nelson JA, et al.: Propensity-matched, longitudinal outcomes analysis of complications and cost: comparing abdominal free flaps and implant-based breast reconstruction. J Am Coll Surg 2014; 219: 303–12.

Vakzinierungsstrategien: Mechanismen, Erfolge und Ausblicke

Jens Bedke (S. 30)


  1. Dengjel J, Nastke MD, Gouttefangeas C, Gitsioudis G, Schoor O, Altenberend F, Muller M, Kramer B, Missiou A, Sauter M, Hennenlotter J, Wernet D, Stenzl A, Rammensee HG, Klingel K, Stevanovic S (2006) Unexpected abundance of HLA class II presented peptides in primary renal cell carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 12 (14 Pt 1):4163-4170
  2. Oliver RT, Nethersell AB, Bottomley JM (1989) Unexplained spontaneous regression and alpha-interferon as treatment for metastatic renal carcinoma. British journal of urology 63 (2):128-131
  3. Antonarakis ES, Drake CG (2010) Current status of immunological therapies for prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol 20 (3):241-246
  4. Wang X, Yu J, Sreekumar A, Varambally S, Shen R, Giacherio D, Mehra R, Montie JE, Pienta KJ, Sanda MG, Kantoff PW, Rubin MA, Wei JT, Ghosh D, Chinnaiyan AM (2005) Autoantibody signatures in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 353 (12):1224-1235
  5. Rausch S, Kruck S, Stenzl A, Bedke J (2014) IMA901 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the context of new approaches to immunotherapy. Future oncology 10 (6):937-948. doi:10.2217/fon.14.61
  6. Brookman-May S, Burger M, Wieland WF, Rossler W, May M, Denzinger S (2011) Vaccination therapy in renal cell carcinoma: current position and future options in metastatic and localized disease. Expert Rev Vaccines 10 (6):837-852
  7. Higano CS, Saad F, Somer B, Curti B, Petrylak D, Drake CG, Schnell F, Redfern CH, Schrijvers D, Sacks N (2009) A phase III trial of GVAX immunotherapy for prostate cancer versus docetaxel plus prednisone in asymptomatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). 2009 ASCO Genitourinary Cancer Symposium:LBA150
  8. Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, Redfern CH, Ferrari AC, Dreicer R, Sims RB, Xu Y, Frohlich MW, Schellhammer PF, Investigators IS (2010) Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. The New England journal of medicine 363 (5):411-422. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001294
  9. Amin A, Dudek A, Logan T, Lance RS, Holzbeierlein JM, Master VA, Kumar Pal S, Knox JJ, Karsh LI, Plessinger D, Nicolette CA, Figlin RA (2013) Prolonged survival with personalized immunotherapy (AGS-003) in combination with sunitinib in unfavorable risk metastatic RCC (mRCC). J Clin Oncol 31 ((suppl 6; abstr 357))
  10. Jocham D, Richter A, Hoffmann L, Iwig K, Fahlenkamp D, Zakrzewski G, Schmitt E, Dannenberg T, Lehmacher W, von Wietersheim J, Doehn C (2004) Adjuvant autologous renal tumour cell vaccine and risk of tumour progression in patients with renal-cell carcinoma after radical nephrectomy: phase III, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 363 (9409):594-599
  11. Wood C, Srivastava P, Bukowski R, Lacombe L, Gorelov AI, Gorelov S, Mulders P, Zielinski H, Hoos A, Teofilovici F, Isakov L, Flanigan R, Figlin R, Gupta R, Escudier B (2008) An adjuvant autologous therapeutic vaccine (HSPPC-96; vitespen) versus observation alone for patients at high risk of recurrence after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III trial. Lancet 372 (9633):145-154
  12. Amato RJ, Hawkins RE, Kaufman HL, Thompson JA, Tomczak P, Szczylik C, McDonald M, Eastty S, Shingler WH, de Belin J, Goonewardena M, Naylor S, Harrop R (2010) Vaccination of metastatic renal cancer patients with MVA-5T4: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. Clin Cancer Res 16 (22):5539-5547
  13. Walter S, Weinschenk T, Stenzl A, Zdrojowy R, Pluzanska A, Szczylik C, Staehler M, Brugger W, Dietrich PY, Mendrzyk R, Hilf N, Schoor O, Fritsche J, Mahr A, Maurer D, Vass V, Trautwein C, Lewandrowski P, Flohr C, Pohla H, Stanczak JJ, Bronte V, Mandruzzato S, Biedermann T, Pawelec G, Derhovanessian E, Yamagishi H, Miki T, Hongo F, Takaha N, Hirakawa K, Tanaka H, Stevanovic S, Frisch J, Mayer-Mokler A, Kirner A, Rammensee HG, Reinhardt C, Singh-Jasuja H (2012) Multipeptide immune response to cancer vaccine IMA901 after single-dose cyclophosphamide associates with longer patient survival. Nat Med in press
  14. Rini B, Stenzl A, Zdrojowy R, Kogan M, Shkolnik M, Oudard S, Weikert S, Bracarda S, Crabb S, Bedke J, Ludwig J, Maurer D, Mendrzyk R, Mahr A, Fritsche J, Weinschenk T, Singh H, Kirner A, Reinhardt C, Eisen T (2015) An open-label, randomized, phase 3 study investigating IMA901 multipeptide cancer vaccine in combination with sunitinib vs. sunitinib alone as first-line therapy for metastatic RCC. wwweuropeancancercongressorg/Scientific-Programme/Searchable-Programme - anchorScpr

Patienten und ihre Angehörigen schlechte Nachrichten richtig überbringen

Anna Stickl und Ute Goerling (S. 33)


  1. Fallowfield, L., Can we improve the professional and personal fulfillment of doctors in cancer medicine? Br J Cancer, 1995. 71(6): p. 1132-3.
  2. Marcus, J.D. and F.E. Mott, Difficult Conversations: From Diagnosis to Death. The Ochsner Journal, 2014. 14(4): p. 712-717.
  3. Watzlawick, P., J.H. Beavin, and D.D. Jackson, Menschliche Kommunikation: Formen, Störungen, Paradoxien. 12 ed. 2011, Bern: Verlag Hans Huber.
  4. Keller, M. and Y. Barthel, Patientenzentrierte Kommunikation in der Onkologie - Erfahrungen mit dem KoMPASS-Training, in Psychoonkologie in Forschung und Praxis, J. Weis and E. Brähler, Editors. 2013, Schattauer: Stuttgart. p. 147-169.
  5. Maguire, R., et al., A systematic review of the supportive care needs of women living with and beyond cervical cancer. Gynecologic Oncology, 2015. 136(3): p. 478-490.
  6. Roberts, C.S., et al., Influence of physician communication on newly diagnosed breast patients' psychologic adjustment and decision-making. Cancer, 1994. 74(S1): p. 336-341.
  7. Vogel, B.A., R. Leonhart, and A.W. Helmes, Communication matters: The impact of communication and participation in decision making on breast cancer patients’ depression and quality of life. Patient Education and Counseling, 2009. 77(3): p. 391-397.
  8. Hack, T.F., et al., Behind closed doors II: systematic analysis of prostate cancer patients' primary treatment consultations with radiation oncologists and predictors of satisfaction with communication. Psycho-Oncology, 2012. 21(8): p. 809-817.
  9. Langewitz, W., B. Buddeberg-Fischer, and K. Laederach, Das ärztliche Gespräch - Die ärztliche Untersuchung, in Psychosoziale Medizin, C. Buddeberg, Editor. 2004. p. 373-407.
  10. Schildmann, J., et al., „Wahrheit am Krankenbett”. Dtsch med Wochenschr, 2011. 136(15): p. 757-761.
  11. Schlömer-Doll, U. and D. Doll, Patienten mit Krebs: Information und emotionale Unterstützung. Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 2000. 97(46): p. A3076-3081.
  12. Goerling, U. and P. Schlag, Patientenorientierte Gesprächsführung in der Onkologie - Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. Doctor consult The Journal. Wissen für Klinik und Praxis, 2010. 1(3): p. e191-e194.
  13. Maex, E. and C. De Valck, Key Elements of Communication in Cancer Care in Communication in Cancer, F. Stiefel, Editor. 2006, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 1-5.
  14. Stiefel, F. and D. Razavi, Informing About Diagnosis, Relapse and Progression of Disease - Communication with the Terminally Ill Cancer Patient, in Communication in Cancer Care, F. Stiefel, Editor. 2006, Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 37-46.
  15. Mazzi, M.A., et al., What do people appreciate in physicians' communication? An international study with focus groups using videotaped medical consultations. Health Expectations, 2015. 18(5): p. 1215-1226.
  16. Rosengren, D.B., Building Motivational Interviewing Skills: A Practitioner Workbook. 2009, New York: The Guilford Press.
  17. Baile, W.F., et al., SPIKES—A Six-Step Protocol for Delivering Bad News: Application to the Patient with Cancer. The Oncologist, 2000. 5(4): p. 302-311.

Update: Diagnostik und Therapieoptionen des Prostatakarzinoms

Markus Graefen (S. 50)


  1. Ferlay J SI, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013 Available from: globocaniarcfr, accessed on 22/02/2016.
  2. Brandle E, Hautmann R, Alken P, Hesse A, Schafer R, Richter-Reichhelm M, et al. [Techniques for interventional and operative therapy of calculi]. Urologe A. 1997;36:585-7.
  3. Bratt O. Hereditary Prostate Cancer: Clinical Aspects. The Journal of Urology. 2002;168:906-13.
  4. Chun FKH, Briganti A, Graefen M, Montorsi F, Porter C, Scattoni V, et al. Development and External Validation of an Extended 10-Core Biopsy Nomogram. European Urology. 2007;52:436-45.
  5. Epstein JI, Egevad L, Amin MB, Delahunt B, Srigley JR, Humphrey PA, et al. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40:244-52.
  6. Pierorazio PM, Walsh PC, Partin AW, Epstein JI. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system. BJU Int. 2013;111:753-60.
  7. D'Amico AV. Biochemical Outcome After Radical Prostatectomy, External Beam Radiation Therapy, or Interstitial Radiation Therapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. JAMA. 1998;280:969.
  8. Partin AW, Mangold LA, Lamm DM, Walsh PC, Epstein JI, Pearson JD. Contemporary update of prostate cancer staging nomograms (Partin Tables) for the new millennium. Urology. 2001;58:843-8.
  9. van den Bergh RC, Vasarainen H, van der Poel HG, Vis-Maters JJ, Rietbergen JB, Pickles T, et al. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance' study. BJU Int. 2010;105:956-62.
  10. Schiffmann J, Wenzel P, Salomon G, Budaus L, Schlomm T, Minner S, et al. Heterogeneity in DAmico classification-based low-risk prostate cancer: Differences in upgrading and upstaging according to active surveillance eligibility. Urol Oncol. 2015;33:329 e13-9.
  11. Epstein JI, Feng Z, Trock BJ, Pierorazio PM. Upgrading and Downgrading of Prostate Cancer from Biopsy to Radical Prostatectomy: Incidence and Predictive Factors Using the Modified Gleason Grading System and Factoring in Tertiary Grades. European Urology. 2012;61:1019-24.
  12. Porten SP, Whitson JM, Cowan JE, Cooperberg MR, Shinohara K, Perez N, et al. Changes in Prostate Cancer Grade on Serial Biopsy in Men Undergoing Active Surveillance. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011;29:2795-800.
  13. Schoots IG, Petrides N, Giganti F, Bokhorst LP, Rannikko A, Klotz L, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in active surveillance of prostate cancer: a systematic review. Eur Urol. 2015;67:627-36.
  14. Chun FKH, Haese A, Ahyai SA, Walz J, Suardi N, Capitanio U, et al. Critical assessment of tools to predict clinically insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy in contemporary men. Cancer. 2008;113:701-9.
  15. Iremashvili V, Soloway MS, Pelaez L, Rosenberg DL, Manoharan M. Comparative Validation of Nomograms Predicting Clinically Insignificant Prostate Cancer. Urology. 2013;81:1202-8.
  16. Long JP, Bahn D, Lee F, Shinohara K, Chinn DO, Macaluso JN. Five-year retrospective, multi-institutional pooled analysis of cancer-related outcomes after cryosurgical ablation of the prostate. Urology. 2001;57:518-23.
  17. van den Bos W, Muller BG, Ahmed H, Bangma CH, Barret E, Crouzet S, et al. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: international multidisciplinary consensus on trial design. Eur Urol. 2014;65:1078-83.
  18. Graefen M, Walz J, Huland H. Open Retropubic Nerve-Sparing Radical Prostatectomy. European Urology. 2006;49:38-48.
  19. Noldus J, Michl U, Graefen M, Haese A, Hammerer P, Huland H. Patient-reported sexual function after nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2002;42:118-24.
  20. Michl UH, Friedrich MG, Graefen M, Haese A, Heinzer H, Huland H. Prediction of postoperative sexual function after nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. J Urol. 2006;176:227-31.
  21. Patel VR, Sivaraman A, Coelho RF, Chauhan S, Palmer KJ, Orvieto MA, et al. Pentafecta: a new concept for reporting outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2011;59:702-7.
  22. Chun FK, Briganti A, Antebi E, Graefen M, Currlin E, Steuber T, et al. Surgical volume is related to the rate of positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy in European patients. BJU Int. 2006;98:1204-9.
  23. Michl U, Tennstedt P, Feldmeier L, Mandel P, Oh SJ, Ahyai S, et al. Nerve-sparing Surgery Technique, Not the Preservation of the Neurovascular Bundles, Leads to Improved Long-term Continence Rates After Radical Prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2015.
  24. Schlomm T, Heinzer H, Steuber T, Salomon G, Engel O, Michl U, et al. Full functional-length urethral sphincter preservation during radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2011;60:320-9.
  25. Schlomm T, Tennstedt P, Huxhold C, Steuber T, Salomon G, Michl U, et al. Neurovascular structure-adjacent frozen-section examination (NeuroSAFE) increases nerve-sparing frequency and reduces positive surgical margins in open and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: experience after 11,069 consecutive patients. Eur Urol. 2012;62:333-40.
  26. Steuber T, Graefen M, Haese A, Erbersdobler A, Chun FKH, Schlom T, et al. Validation of a Nomogram for Prediction of Side Specific Extracapsular Extension at Radical Prostatectomy. The Journal of Urology. 2006;175:939-44.
  27. Zelefsky MJ, Pei X, Chou JF, Schechter M, Kollmeier M, Cox B, et al. Dose Escalation for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy: Predictors of Long-Term Biochemical Tumor Control and Distant Metastases–Free Survival Outcomes. European Urology. 2011;60:1133-9.
  28. Chade DC, Eastham J, Graefen M, Hu JC, Karnes RJ, Klotz L, et al. Cancer control and functional outcomes of salvage radical prostatectomy for radiation-recurrent prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol. 2012;61:961-71.
  29. Hauswald H, Kamrava MR, Fallon JM, Wang PC, Park SJ, Van T, et al. High-Dose-Rate Monotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: 10-Year Results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015.
  30. Yu JB, Soulos PR, Herrin J, Cramer LD, Potosky AL, Roberts KB, et al. Proton versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: patterns of care and early toxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:25-32.
  31. Robinson JW, Moritz S, Fung T. Meta-analysis of rates of erectile function after treatment of localized prostate carcinoma. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 2002;54:1063-8.
  32. Detti B, Bonomo P, Masi L, Doro R, Cipressi S, Iermano C, et al. Cyberknife treatment for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer. Cancer investigation. 2015;33:188-92.
  33. Nepple KG, Stephenson AJ, Kallogjeri D, Michalski J, Grubb RL, 3rd, Strope SA, et al. Mortality after prostate cancer treatment with radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiation therapy, or brachytherapy in men without comorbidity. Eur Urol. 2013;64:372-8.
  34. Zelefsky MJ, Eastham JA, Cronin AM, Fuks Z, Zhang Z, Yamada Y, et al. Metastasis after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a comparison of clinical cohorts adjusted for case mix. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1508-13.
  35. Sweeney CJ, Chen YH, Carducci M, Liu G, Jarrard DF, Eisenberger M, et al. Chemohormonal Therapy in Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:737-46.
  36. de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels J-P, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. The Lancet. 2010;376:1147-54.
  37. Flaig TW, Potluri RC, Ng Y, Todd MB, Mehra M. Treatment evolution for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with recent introduction of novel agents: retrospective analysis of real-world data. Cancer Med. 2015;5:182-91.
  38. Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, et al. Sipuleucel-T Immunotherapy for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363:411-22.
  39. Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O'Sullivan JM, Fosså SD, et al. Alpha Emitter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;369:213-23.

Pharmaforum - Optimaler Therapieerfolg mit Leitlinien-gerechtem Einsatz von Bevacizumab


  1. www.ago-online.de (AGO-Leitlinie zum Mammakarzinom, Version 2016.1)
  2. Gray R et al., JCO 2009, 20;27(30): 4966-4972.
  3. Roberts NJ et al., JCO 2011, 29(10): 1252-1260.
  4. Zielinski CC et al., ECC 2015, #1800.
  5. Miles D et al., ECC 2015, #1866.
  6. Herschbach et al., BJC 2004, 91: 504-511.
  7. O’Shaughnessy J et al., Cancer Res 2009, 69 (suppl): #207.
  8. Inbar MJ et al., ASCO JCO 2013, #1040.
  9. Kahàn Z et al., AACR 2013, #177.
  10. Lang I et al., Lancet Oncol 2013, 14: 125-133.
  11. Smith I et al., Ann Oncol 2011, 22: 595-602.
  12. Mentuccia L et al., ASCO JCO 2015, 33 (suppl), #549.
  13. E2100-Studie, Roche Data on File

Pharmaforum - Hohe Überlebensrate mit Herceptin auch nach zehn Jahren bestätigt

(S. 60)

  1. Piccart-GebhartMJ et al.,NEJM2005, 352: 1659-72
  2. Jackisch C et al., SABCS 2015: PD5-01.
  3. SlamonDet al.,NEJM2011, 365: 1273-83
  4. SlamonDet al., SABCS 2015: S5-04.

Pharmaforum - Azacitidin verlängert das Gesamtüberleben von älteren AML-Patienten mit mehr als 30% Blasten

(S. 63)


  1. Fachinformation VIDAZA®, Stand Oktober 2015
  2. Kahl C et al. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2016; 142(1):305-15
  3. Dombret H et al., Blood 2015; 126(3):291-299