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Prophylaxe und Therapie sekundärer ZNS-Beteiligung bei malignen Lymphomen (S.10–15)
A. Korfel 

  1. Chin CK, Cheah CY. How I treat patients with aggressive lymphoma at high risk of CNS relapse. Blood. 2017; 130(7): 867–874
  2. Zucca E, Conconi A, Mughal TI, Sarris AH, Seymour JF, et al. and International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group. Patterns of outcome and prognostic factors in primary large-cell lymphoma of the testis in a survey by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21(1): 20–7
  3. Monnard V, Sun A, Epelbaum R, Poortmans P, Miller RC, et al. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma: patients' profile, outcome, and prognostic factors: a multicenter Rare Cancer Network study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006; 65(3): 817–23 
  4. Hosein PJ, Maragulia JC, Salzberg MP, Press OW, Habermann TM, et al. A multicentre study of primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. Br J Haematol. 2014; 165(3): 358–63 
  5. Papageorgiou SG, Diamantopoulos P, Levidou G, Angelopoulou MK, Economopoulou P, et al. Isolated central nervous system relapses in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma after CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without Rituximab. Hematol Oncol. 2013; 31(1): 10–7 
  6. Bekkenk MW, Postma TJ, Meijer CJ, Willemze R. Frequency of central nervous system involvement in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Cancer. 2000; 89(4): 913–9
  7. Murawski N, Held G, Ziepert M, Kempf B, Viardot A, et al. The role of radiotherapy and intrathecal CNS prophylaxis in extralymphatic craniofacial aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Blood. 2014; 124(5): 720–8 
  8. Korfel A. Prevention of central nervous system relapses in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: which patients and how? Curr Opin Oncol. 2011; 23(5): 436–40
  9. Schmitz N, Zeynalova S, Nickelsen M, Kansara R, Villa D, et al. CNS International Prognostic Index: A Risk Model for CNS Relapse in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 10; 34(26): 3150–6
  10. El-Galaly TC, Villa D, Michaelsen TY, Hutchings M, Mikhaeel NG, et al. The number of extranodal sites assessed by PET/CT scan is a powerful predictor of CNS relapse for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: An international multicenter study of 1532 patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2017; 75: 195–203
  11. Schmitz N, Zeynalova S, Glass B, Kaiser U, Cavallin-Stahl E, et al. CNS disease in younger patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma: an analysis of patients treated on the Mabthera International Trial and trials of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group. Ann Oncol. 2012; 23(5): 1267–73
  12. Boehme V, Schmitz N, Zeynalova S, Loeffler M, Pfreundschuh M. CNS events in elderly patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with modern chemotherapy (CHOP-14) with or without rituximab: an analysis of patients treated in the RICOVER-60 trial of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL). Blood 2009; 23; 113(17): 3896–902
  13. Kumar A, Vanderplas A, LaCasce AS, Rodriguez MA, Crosby AL, et al. Lack of benefit of central nervous system prophylaxis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era: findings from a large national database. Cancer. 2012 Jun 1; 118(11): 2944–51
  14. Tai WM, Chung J, Tang PL, Koo YX, Hou X, et al. Central nervous system (CNS) relapse in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL): pre- and post-rituximab. Ann Hematol. 2011; 90(7): 809–18
  15. Tomita N, Takasaki H, Ishiyama Y, Kishimoto K, Ishibashi D, et al. Intrathecal methotrexate prophylaxis and central nervous system relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma following rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone. Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(3): 725–9
  16. Malecek MK, Petrich AM, Rozell S, Chu B, Trifilio S, et al. Frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of central nervous system relapse in lymphoma patients treated with dose-adjusted EPOCH plus rituximab. Am J Hematol 2017; 92(11): 1156–62 
  17. González-Barca E, Canales M, Salar A, Ferreiro-Martínez JJ, Ferrer-Bordes S, et al. Central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in a subset of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving first line systemic therapy in a prospective trial. Ann Hematol 2016; 95(6): 893–9
  18. Vitolo U, Chiappella A, Ferreri AJ, Martelli M, Baldi I, et al. First-line treatment for primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with rituximab-CHOP, CNS prophylaxis, and contralateral testis irradiation: final results of an international phase II trial. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29(20): 2766–72 
  19. Haioun C, Besson C, Lepage E, Thieblemont C, Simon D, et al. Incidence and risk factors of central nervous system relapse in histologically aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma uniformly treated and receiving intrathecal central nervous system prophylaxis: a GELA study on 974 patients. Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. Ann Oncol 2000; 11(6): 685–90
  20. Tilly H, Lepage E, Coiffier B, Blanc M, Herbrecht R, et al. Intensive conventional chemotherapy (ACVBP regimen) compared with standard CHOP for poor-prognosis aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 2003; 102(13): 4284–9 
  21. Holte H, Leppä S, Björkholm M, Fluge O, Jyrkkiö S, et al. Dose-densified chemoimmunotherapy followed by systemic central nervous system prophylaxis for younger high-risk diffuse large B-cell/follicular grade 3 lymphoma patients: results of a phase II Nordic Lymphoma Group study. Ann Oncol 2013; 24(5): 1385–92
  22. Cheah CY, Herbert KE, O'Rourke K, Kennedy GA, George A, et al. A multicentre retrospective comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis strategies among patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Cancer 2014; 111(6): 1072–9 
  23. Ferreri AJ, Bruno-Ventre M, Donadoni G, Ponzoni M, Citterio G, et al. Risk-tailored CNS prophylaxis in a mono-institutional series of 200 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the rituximab era. Brit J Haematol 2015; 168(5): 654–62 
  24. Glantz MJ, LaFollette S, Jaeckle KA, Shapiro W, Swinnen L, et al.Randomized trial of a slow-release versus a standard formulation of cytarabine for the intrathecal treatment of lymphomatous meningitis. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17(10): 3110–6
  25. Doolittle ND, Abrey LE, Shenkier TN, Tali S, Bromberg JE, et al. Brain parenchyma involvement as isolated central nervous system relapse of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report. Blood 2008; 111(3): 1085–93
  26. Patrij K, Reiser M, Wätzel L, Pels H, Kowoll A, et al. Isolated central nervous system relapse of systemic lymphoma (SCNSL): clinical features and outcome of a retrospective analysis. Ger Med Sci. 2011; 9: Doc11
  27.  Korfel A, Elter T, Thiel E, Hänel M, Möhle R, et al. Phase II study of central nervous system (CNS)-directed chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for CNS relapse of aggressive lymphomas. Haematologica 2013; 98(3): 364–70
  28. Ferreri AJ, Donadoni G, Cabras MG, Patti C, Mian M, et al. High Doses of Antimetabolites Followed by High-Dose Sequential Chemoimmunotherapy and Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Patients With Systemic B-Cell Lymphoma and Secondary CNS Involvement: Final Results of a Multicenter Phase II Trial.J Clin Oncol 2015; 33(33): 3903–10
  29. Qualls D, Sullivan A, Li S, Brunner AM, Collier K, et al. High-dose Thiotepa, Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide, and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation as Upfront Consolidation for Systemic Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma With Synchronous Central Nervous System Involvement. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk, 17(12): 884–88
  30. Korfel A. “Wonder drugs” in CNS lymphoma. Translational Cancer Res 2017, Vol 6, Suppl 7 (October 2017) 

Radioonkologische Therapiemöglichkeiten bei zerebralen Metastasen (S.18–23)
R. Bodensohn, C. Belka,M. Niyazi 

  1. Soffietti R, Abacioglu U, Baumert B, Combs SE, Kinhult S, Kros JM, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from solid tumors: guidelines from the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO). NeuroOncol 2017 Feb 1; 19(2): 162−174
  2. Kocher M, Wittig A, Piroth MD, Treuer H, Seegenschmiedt H, Ruge M, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of brain metastases. A report of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol 2014; 190(6): 521–32
  3. Mulvenna P, Nankivell M, Barton R, Faivre-Finn C, Wilson P, McColl E, et al. Dexamethasone and supportive care with or without whole brain radiotherapy in treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases unsuitable for resection or stereotactic radiotherapy (QUARTZ): results from a phase 3, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet 2016 Oct 22; 388(10055): 2004−14
  4. Wang TJC, Brown PD. Brainmetastases: fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy. Handb ClinNeurol. 2018; 149: 123−127 
  5. Bruynzeel AM, Lagerwaard FJ. Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: the end of an era? J ThoracDis. 2016 Nov; 8(11): E1525−27
  6. Gondi V, Tome WA, Mehta MP. Why avoid the hippocampus? A comprehensive review. Radiother Oncol. 2010; 97(3): 370–6
  7. Kazda T, Jancalek R, Pospisil P, Sevela O, Prochazka T, Vrzal M, et al. Why and how to spare the hippocampus during brain radiotherapy: the developing role of hippocampal avoidance in cranial radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2014; 9: 139
  8. Gondi V, Pugh SL, Tome WA, Caine C, Corn B, Kanner A, et al. Preservation of memory with conformal avoidance of the hippocampal neural stem-cell compartment during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (RTOG 0933): a phase II multi-institutional trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(34): 3810–6
  9. Oehlke O, Wucherpfennig D, Fels F, Frings L, Egger K, Weyerbrock A, et al. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases : Local tumour control and survival. Strahlenther Onkol. 2015
  10. Harth S, Abo-Madyan Y, Zheng L, Siebenlist K, Herskind C et al. Estimation of intracranial failure risk following hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy. RadiotherOncol. 2013Oct; 109(1): 152−8
  11. Brown PD, Pugh S, Laack Nn, Wefel Js, Khuntia D, et al. Memantine for the prevention of cognitive dysfunction in patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neuro Oncol. 2013Oct; 15(10): 1429−37
  12. Shaw E, Scott C, Souhami L, Dinapoli R, Kline R, et al. Single dose radiosurgical treatment of recurrent previously irradiated primary brain tumors and brain metastases: final report of RTOG protocol 90-05. Int J RadiatOncol Biol Phys. 2000May 1; 47(2): 291−8
  13. Yamamoto M, Serizawa T, Shuto T, Akabane A, Higuchi Y, Kawagishi J, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple brain metastases (JLGK0901): a multi-institutional prospective observational study. Lancet Oncol 2014 Apr; 15(4): 387−95
  14. Yamamoto M, Serizawa T, Higuchi Y, Sato Y, Kawagishi J, Yamanaka K, et al. A Multi-institutional Prospective Observational Study of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases (JLGK0901 Study Update): Irradiation-related Complications and Long-term Maintenance of Mini-Mental State Examination Scores. Int J RadiatOncol Biol Phys. 2017 Sep 1; 99(1): 31−40
  15. Yamamoto M, Kawabe T, Sato Y, Higuchi Y, Nariai T, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with multiple brain metastases: a case-matched study comparing treatment results for patients with 2-9 versus 10 or more tumors. JNeurosurg. 2014Dec; 121 Suppl: 16−25
  16. www.brainlab.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/RT_WP_EN_Automatic-Brain-Metastases-Planning_Sep15_final1.pdf. Zuletzt besucht am 27.12.2017
  17. Kocher M, Soffietti R, Abacioglu U, Villa S, Fauchon F, et al. Adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy versus observation after radiosurgery or surgical resection of one to three cerebral metastases: results of the EORTC 22952-26001 study. J ClinOncol 2011 Jan 10; 29(2): 134−41
  18. Soffietti R, Kocher M, Abacioglu Um, Villa S, Fauchon F, et al. A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial of adjuvant whole-brain radiotherapy versus observation in patients with one to three brain metastases from solid tumors after surgical resection or radiosurgery: quality-of-life results. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan 1; 31(1): 65−72
  19. Mahajan A, Ahmed S, McAleer MF, Weinberg JS, Li J, Brown P, et al. Post-operative stereotactic radiosurgery versus observation for completely resected brain metastases: a single-centre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2017 Aug; 18(8): 1040−48
  20. Brown PD, Ballman KV, Cerhan JH, Anderson SK, Carrero XW, Whitton AC, et al. Postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery compared with whole brain radiotherapy for resected metastatic brain disease (NCCTG N107C/CEC.3): a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017 Aug; 18(8): 1049−60
  21. Jiang T, Min W, Li Y, Yue Z, Wu C, Zhou C. Radiotherapy plus EGFR TKIs in non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases: an update meta-analysis. Cancer Med. 2016 Jun; 5(6): 1055–65
  22. Sperduto PW, Wang M, Robins HI, Schell MC, Werner-Wasik M, et al. A phase 3 trial of whole brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery alone versus WBRT and SRS with temozolomide or erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer and 1 to 3 brain metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013 Apr 1; 85(5): 1312–8
  23. Wolf A, Zia S, Verma R, Pavlick A, Wilson M, Golfinos JG, et al. Impact on overall survival of the combination of BRAF inhibitors and stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with melanoma brain metastases. J Neurooncol 2016 May; 127(3): 607–15
  24. Xu Z, Lee CC, Ramesh A, Mueller AC, Schlesinger D, Cohen-Inbar O, et al. BRAF V600E mutation and BRAF kinase inhibitors in conjunction with stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial melanoma metastases. J Neurosurg. 2017 Mar; 126(3): 726–34
  25. Cochran DC, Chan MD, Aklilu M, Lovato JF, Alphonse NK, et al. The effect of targeted agents on outcomes in patients with brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma treated with Gamma Knife surgery. J Neurosurg 2012 May; 116(5): 978–83 

Neoadjuvante Chemotherapie des Vulva-Karzinoms – Kasuistik und Literaturübersicht (S.30–33)
A. Hentrich, J. Kosse, G. Kläbisch, S. Braun, A. Rotmann, C. Jackisch 

  1.  Diagnosis, Therapy, and Follow - Up Care of Vulvar Cancer and its Precursors. National Guideline of the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (S2k – Level, AWMF Registry No. 015/059, August 2015) www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/015-059.html (Zugegriffen: 30.10.2016)
  2. Krebs in Deutschland 2011/2012. 10. Ausgabe. Robert Koch-Institut (Hrsg.) und die Gesellschaft der epidemiologischen Krebsregister in Deutschland e.V. (Hrsg.). Berlin, 2015. www.krebsdaten.de/Krebs/DE/Content/Publikationen/Krebs_in_Deutschland/kid_2015/kid_2015_c51_vulva.pdf;jsessionid=120430184F486A489B7D828C80EC388C.2_cid363 (Zugegriffen: 30.10.2016)
  3. Raspagliesi F, Zanaboni F, Martinelli F, Scasso S, Laufer J, Ditto A. Role of paclitaxel and cisplatin as the neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Gynecol 2014; 25: 22–29
  4. Deppe G, Mert I, Belotte J, Winer IS. Chemotherapy of vulvar cancer: a review. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2013; 125: 119–128
  5. Witteveen PO, Velden J, Vergote I Guerra C, Scarabeli C, Coens C, et.al. Phase II study on paclitaxel in patients with recurrent, metastatic or locally advanced vulvar cancer not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy: a study of the EORTC-GCG (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Gynaecological Cancer Group); Ann Oncol 2009; 20: 1511–16
  6. Reade C, Eirikkson LR, Mackay H. Systemic therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: current status and future directions. Gynecol Oncol 2014; 132: 780–789
  7. Horn LC, Schierle K. Pathologie der Präkanzerosen und der Karzinome von Vulva und Vagina sowie morphologische Prognosefaktoren. Onkologe 2009; 15: 15–27
  8. de Gregorio N, Schramm A, Ebner F, Janni W. Operative Therapie des Vulvakarzinoms – Wie viel Radikalität ist erforderlich? Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2016; 76: 746–766
  9. Benedetti-Panici P, Greggi S, Scambia G, Salerno G, Mancuso S. Cisplatin (P), Bleomycin (B), and Methotrexate (M) preoperative chemotherapy in locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1993; 50: 49–53
  10. Wagenaar HC, Colombo N, Vergote I, Hoctin-Boes G, Zanetta G, Pecorelli S, et.al. Bleomycin, methotrexate, and CCNU in locally advanced or recurrent, inoperable, squamous-cell carcinoma of the vulva: an EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Cooperative Group Study. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2001; 81: 348–354
  11. Geisler JP, Manahan KJ, Buller RE. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in vulvar cancer: avoiding primary exenteration. Gynecol Oncol 2006; 100: 53–57
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Infektionen bei Krebspatienten – Prävention und Therapie (S.34–39)
B. Hermann, M. von Lilienfeld-Toal, K. Mayer  

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  2. Bodey GP, Buckley M, Sathe YS, Freireich EJ. Quantitative relationships between circulating leukocytes and infection in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med. 1966; 64:328–40
  3. Aapro MS, Bohlius J, Cameron DA, Dal Lago L, Donnelly JP, Kearney N, et al. 2010 update of EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and solid tumours. Eur J Cancer 2011; 47:8–32. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.10.013
  4. Vehreschild JJ, Bohme A, Cornely OA, Kahl C, Karthaus M, Kreuzer K-A, et al. Prophylaxis of infectious complications with colony-stimulating factors in adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy-evidence-based guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Working Party AGIHO of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO). Ann Oncol. 2014; 25:1709–18 doi:10.1093/annonc/mdu035
  5. Neumann S, Krause SW, Maschmeyer G, Schiel X, Lilienfeld-Toal M von. Primary prophylaxis of bacterial infections and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors: Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO). Ann Hematol 2013; 92:433–42. doi:10.1007/s00277-013-1698-0
  6. Gafter-Gvili A, Fraser A, Paul M, Vidal L, Lawrie TA, van de Wetering, Marianne D, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 1:CD004386. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004386.pub3
  7. Mayer K, Hahn-Ast C, Muckter S, Schmitz A, Krause S, Felder L, et al. Comparison of antibiotic prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole/colistin (COT/COL) versus ciprofloxacin (CIP) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Support Care Cancer 2015; 23:1321–9. doi:10.1007/s00520-015-2621-0
  8. Ford CD, Lopansri BK, Haydoura S, Snow G, Dascomb KK, Asch J, et al. Frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonization and infection in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia: different patterns in patients with acute myelogenous and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015; 36:47–53. doi:10.1017/ice.2014.3
  9. Fridkin SK, Edwards JR, Courval JM, Hill H, Tenover FC, Lawton R, et al. The effect of vancomycin and third-generation cephalosporins on prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 126 U.S. adult intensive care units. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 135: 175–83
  10. Cometta A, Kern WV, Bock R de, Paesmans M, Vandenbergh M, Crokaert F, et al. Vancomycin versus placebo for treating persistent fever in patients with neutropenic cancer receiving piperacillin-tazobactam monotherapy. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37:382–9. doi:10.1086/376637
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  14. Klastersky J, Paesmans M, Georgala A, Muanza F, Plehiers B, Dubreucq L, et al. Outpatient oral antibiotics for febrile neutropenic cancer patients using a score predictive for complications. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24:4129–34. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.9909
  15. Kern WV, Cometta A, Bock R de, Langenaeken J, Paesmans M, Gaya H. Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341:312–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199907293410502
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UPDATE: Therapie des metastasierten Prostatakarzinoms (S.41–45)
T. Steuber, G. v. Amsberg 

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