Das Medizinportal


Epidemiologie des plötzlichen Herztodes – Definition, Ursachen, Prävention

Dietrich Andresen


  1. Zipes DP, Wellens HJJ. Sudden cardiac death. Circulation 1998;98: 2334-51.
  2. Davies MJ. Anatomic features in victims of sudden coronary death: coronary artery pathology. Circulation 1992;85: Suppl 1:1-19-1-24.
  3. Myerburg RJ, Interian A Jr, Mitrani RM, Kessler KM, Castellanos A. Frequency of   sudden cardiac death and profiles of risk. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80:10F-19F.
  4. Bachman JW, McDonald GS, O`Brien PC. A study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in northeastern Minnesota. JAMA 1986; 256: 477-83.
  5. Becker LB, Smith DW, Rhodes KV. Incidence of cardiac arrest: a neglected factor in evaluating survival rates. Ann Emerg Med 1993; 22: 86-91.
  6. Andresen D, Behrens S, Arntz R, Brüggemann T. (1993) Prävention des plötzlichen (rhythmusbedingten) Herztodes. Internist 34: 423 – 435
  7. Krahn AD, Connolly SJ, Roberts RS, Gent M, Diminishing proportional risk of sudden death with advancing age: implications for prevention of sudden death. Am Heart J. 2004; 147: 837–840 .
  8. Albert CM, Chae CU, Grodstein F, Rose LM, Rexrode KM, Ruskin JN, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE Prospective study of sudden cardiac death among women in the United States. Circulation. 2003; 107: 2096–2101
  9. Kannel WB, Schatzkin A, Sudden death: lessons from subsets in population studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985; 5: 141B–149B .
  10. Greene HL (1990) Sudden arrhythmic cardiac death – mechanisms, resuscitation and classification: the Seattle perspektive. Am J Cardiol 65:4B – 12B. 
  11. Green HL (1985) The ventricular fibrillation survivor: when and how to treat. Mod Med 53: 64 – 82
  12. Andresen D, Brüggemann Th, Ehlers Ch (1998) Risikostratifikation nach Myokardinfarkt Herzschr Elektrophys 9: Suppl 2, 79 – 84
  13. Bigger JT Jr, Fleiss JL, Kleiger R, Miller JP, Rolnitzky LM. The relationships among ventricular arrhythmias, left ventricular dysfunction, and mortality in the 2 jears after myocardial infarction. Circulation 1984;69: 250-8.
  14. Andresen D, Bethge KP, Boissel JP, von Leitner ER, Peyrieux JC, Schröder R, Tietze U for the European Infarction Study Group (1990): Importance of quantitative analysis of ventricular arrhythmias for predicting the prognois in low-risk postmyocardial infarction patients. Eur Heart J 11:529-536. 
  15. Kuchar DL, Thorburn CW, Sammel NL (1987) Prediction of serious arrhythmic events after myocardial infarction: Signal-averaged electrocardiogram, Holter monitoring and radionuclide ventriculography. J Am Coll Cardiol 9; 531-538.
  16. McClements BM, Adgey J (1993) Value of signal-averaged electrocardiography, radionuclide ventriculography, Holter monitoring and clinical variables for prediction of arrhythmic events in survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic era. J Am Coll Cardiol 21:1419-1427.
  17. Hlatky MA, Greenland P, Arnett DK et al. Criteria for evaluation of novel markers of cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009; 119: 2408–2416 
  18. Cerrone M, Priori SG Genetics in sudden death: focus on herited channelopathies Eur Heart J 2011, 32:2109-2118
  19. Wannamethee G, Shaper AG, Macfarlane PW, Walker M. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death in middle-aged British men. Circulation 1995; 91: 1749-56.
  20. Kannel WB, Cupples LA, Dàgostino RB, Stokes J. Hypertension, antihypertensive treatment, and sudden coronary death. The Framingham Study. Hypertension 1988; 11: II45-II50.
  21. Cupples LA, Gagnon DR, Kannel WB. Long- and shortterm risk of sudden coronary death. Circulation 1992; 85: I11-I18.
  22. Jouven X, Desnos M, Guerot C, Ducimetiere P. Predicting sudden death in the population : the Paris Prospective Study I. Circulation 1999; 99: 1978-83.
  23. Kannel WB, Schatzkin A. Sudden death: lessons from subsets in population studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 1985; 5: 141B-149B.
  24. Nichol G, Thomas E, Callaway CW et al. (2014) Predictors of neurologic outcome in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest Am J Cardiol 114(7):1024-1028
  25. Weisfeldt ML, Sitlani CM, Ornato JP et al., (2010) Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system J Am Coll Cardiol 55(16): 1713-1720
  26. Wik L, Hansen TB, Fylling F, Steen T, Vaagenes P, Auestad BH, Steen PA Delaying    defibrillation to give basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: a randomized trial (2003) JAMA 289: 1389 – 1395
  27. Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Nichol G, Clark LL, Spaite DW, Hardman RG (2000) Outcomes or rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos N Engl J Med 343: 12 – 1209
  28. Huikuri HV, Castellanos A, Myerburg R (2001) Sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias N Engl J Med 345: 1473 – 1482

Arrhythmogene Herzerkrankungen: Genetische Diagnostik

Britt-Maria Beckmann, Stefan Kääb


  1. Priori SG, Wilde AA, Horie M, Cho Y, Behr ER, Berul C, et al. Executive summary: HRS/EHRA/APHRS expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of patients with inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes. Heart Rhythm. 2013;10(12):e85-108.
  2. Schwartz PJ, Stramba-Badiale M, Crotti L, Pedrazzini M, Besana A, Bosi G, et al. Prevalence of the congenital long-QT syndrome. Circulation. 2009;120(18):1761-7.
  3. Maron BJ, Gardin JM, Flack JM, Gidding SS, Kurosaki TT, Bild DE. Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults. Echocardiographic analysis of 4111 subjects in the CARDIA Study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults. Circulation. 1995;92(4):785-9.
  4. Ackerman MJ, Priori SG, Willems S, Berul C, Brugada R, Calkins H, et al. HRS/EHRA expert consensus statement on the state of genetic testing for the channelopathies and cardiomyopathies: this document was developed as a partnership between the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Europace. 2011;13(8):1077-109.
  5. Schulze-Bahr E, Klaassen S, Abdul-Khaliq H, Schunkert H. Gendiagnostik bei kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen; Positionspapier der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie (DGK) und der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Kardiologie (DGPK). Kardiologe. 2015;9:213-43.
  6. Schwartz PJ, Moss AJ, Vincent GM, Crampton RS. Diagnostic criteria for the long QT syndrome. An update. Circulation. 1993;88(2):782-4.
  7. Viskin S, Rosso R, Friedensohn L, Havakuk O, Wilde AA. Everybody has Brugada syndrome until proven otherwise? Heart Rhythm. 2015;12(7):1595-8.
  8. Postema PG, Mosterd A, Hofman N, Alders M, Wilde AA. Sodium channelopathies: do we really understand what's going on? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011;22(5):590-3.
  9. Bezzina C, Veldkamp MW, van Den Berg MP, Postma AV, Rook MB, Viersma JW, et al. A single Na(+) channel mutation causing both long-QT and Brugada syndromes. Circ Res. 1999;85(12):1206-13.
  10. Bezzina CR, Lahrouchi N, Priori SG. Genetics of sudden cardiac death. Circ Res. 2015;116(12):1919-36.
  11. Gussak I, Brugada P, Brugada J, Wright RS, Kopecky SL, Chaitman BR, et al. Idiopathic short QT interval: a new clinical syndrome? Cardiology. 2000;94(2):99-102.
  12. Harrell DT, Ashihara T, Ishikawa T, Tominaga I, Mazzanti A, Takahashi K, et al. Genotype-dependent differences in age of manifestation and arrhythmia complications in short QT syndrome. Int J Cardiol. 2015;190:393-402.
  13. Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Sherrill D, Basso C, Bauce B, Bluemke DA, et al. Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: proposed modification of the task force criteria. Circulation. 2010;121(13):1533-41.
  14. Kapplinger JD, Landstrom AP, Salisbury BA, Callis TE, Pollevick GD, Tester DJ, et al. Distinguishing arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia-associated mutations from background genetic noise. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(23):2317-27.
  15. Xu T, Yang Z, Vatta M, Rampazzo A, Beffagna G, Pilichou K, et al. Compound and digenic heterozygosity contributes to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(6):587-97.
  16. Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G, Antzelevitch C, Corrado D, Arnett D, et al. Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2006;113(14):1807-16.
  17. van Rijsingen IA, Arbustini E, Elliott PM, Mogensen J, Hermans-van Ast JF, van der Kooi AJ, et al. Risk factors for malignant ventricular arrhythmias in lamin a/c mutation carriers a European cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(5):493-500.
  18. van der Werf C, Hendrix A, Birnie E, Bots ML, Vink A, Bardai A, et al. Improving usual care after sudden death in the young with focus on inherited cardiac diseases (the CAREFUL study): a community-based intervention study. Europace. 2015.

Synkope im Alter: Häufigkeit, Diagnostik und Therapie

Bernd-Dieter Gonska


  1. Seidl et al. Z. Kardiol 2005;94:592-612
  2. National Health Ambulatory Medical Survey (USA) 1997-2000
  3. Lawler et al. Lancet 366, 2005:1885-189
  4. Rafanelli et al. Clinical Interventions in Aging 2014: 333-338   
  5. Brignole M et al. Circulation. 2012;125:2566-2571      
  6. Soteriades E.S.  et al.,  NEJM 2002; 347: 878 - 858          
  7. Brignole et al., Guidelines , Europace 2004; 6: 467-537 
  8. Forleo et al. International journal of cardiology 10/2012; 168(1).
  9. Reybrouck T et al. PACE  2000;23(4 Pt. 1):493-498