Das Medizinportal     Aktuelles für medizinische Fachkreise
Menü

Das Medizinportal     Aktuelles für medizinische Fachkreise

Literatur:

Prognoseabschätzung bei Hypoxisch-Ischämischer Encephalopathie nach Herzkreislaufstillstand

Daniel Wertheimer

  1. Brunko E, 1987 Electroenceph Clin Neurophys 66].
  2. Roine RO, 1988, cerebral resucitation after cardiac arrest, Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, pp474–481]
  3. Wijdicks, E.F.M, practice parameter: Prediction of Outcome in comatose survivors after cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( an evidence- based review) neurology 2006; 67: 203–210   
  4. Estraneo A, Late recovery after traumatic, anoxic or haemorrhagic long lasting vegetative state. Neurology 2010; 75: 239–245
  5. Nolan JP, 2010 Curr Opin Crit Care 16: 216–222
  6. Oddo M, 2011, Curr opin Crit Care 17: 254–259]
  7. S1- Leitlinie Hypoxische Encephalopathie AWMF 030/119 HE DGN 2012
  8. Hamann, GF, Akt Neurol 2012; 39: 309–321
  9. AAN Guidelines 2006].
  10. Rosetti AO, 2010, Ann Neurol 67: 301–307]
  11. Insanic, Dzenita, Prädiktiver Wert der NSE nach Reanimation bei Kreislaufstillstand und milder Hypothermie, Promotionsarbeit 2014, Medizinische Fakultät Erlangen- Nürnberg
  12. Oddo M, 2011, Curr opin Crit Care 17: 254–259]
  13. Zandbergen EG, 2006 Neurology 66: 62–68]
  14. Shinozaki K 2009, Crit Care 13: R121]
  15. Oddo M, 2011, Current opinion in Critical Car 17: 254–259]
  16. Rundgren M, 2010, Crit Care Med 38: 1838–1844]
  17. Rosetti AO, 2007, Neurology 69: 255–260]
  18. Rosetti AO,2009 Neurology 72: 744–749
  19. Fugate JE, 2010, Ann Neurol 68: 907–914].
  20. Storm C Prognose des Herz-Kreislaufstillstandes nach Reanimation Austrian Journal of Cardiology 2015; 22 (11-12), 274–279
  21. Brunko E, Zegers de Beyl 1987, ECN 66: 13–25]
  22. Robinson LR, 2003, Crit Care Med 31: 960–967]
  23. Leithner C, 2010 Neurology, 74: 965–969]
  24. Howell K, Rehabilitation Outcome of anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy survivors with prolonged disorders of consciousness.  Resuscitation 2013; 84: 1409–1415
  25. Wijman CA, 2009, Ann Neurol 65: 394–402] 
  26. Mlynash M, 2010 Stroke 41: 1665–1672]
  27. Zanatta, 2012, Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergencymedicine, 20: 22]
  28. Bender A Wachkoma und Minimaler Bewusstseinszustand

Therapeutische Hypothermie nach extrahospitaler Reanimation – wie cool ist cool?

A. Schäfer, MD, C. Flottmann, MD 

  1. Dempsey RJ, Combs DJ, Maley ME, Cowen DE, Roy MW, Donaldson DL. Moderate hypothermia reduces postischemic edema development and leukotriene production. Neurosurgery. 1987; 21(2): 177–81.
  2. Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, Jones BM, Silvester W, Gutteridge G, Smith K. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(8): 557–63.
  3. Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study G. Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346(8): 549–56.
  4. Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T, Erlinge D, Gasche Y, Hassager C, Horn J, Hovdenes J, Kjaergaard J, Kuiper M, Pellis T, Stammet P, Wanscher M, Wise MP, Aneman A, Al-Subaie N, Boesgaard S, Bro-Jeppesen J, Brunetti I, Bugge JF, Hingston CD, Juffermans NP, Koopmans M, Kober L, Langorgen J, Lilja G, Moller JE, Rundgren M, Rylander C, Smid O, Werer C, Winkel P, Friberg H, Investigators TTMT. Targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(23): 2197–206.
  5. Polderman KH, Varon J. How low should we go? Hypothermia or strict normothermia after cardiac arrest? Circulation. 2015; 131(7): 669–75.
  6. Polderman KH, Noc M, Kurz M, Aibiki M. Therapeutic Hypothermia in Post-Cardiac Arrest and Myocardial Infarction. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2015; 5(4): 193–7.
  7. Zauner F, Berliner D, Napp LC, Sieweke J-T, Flierl U, Tongers J, Bauersachs J, Schäfer A. Patient characteristics and preliminary outcome results of the Hannover Hypothermia Registry.  81st Annual Session of the German Cardiac Society; Mannheim 2015.
  8. Martini WZ, Pusateri AE, Uscilowicz JM, Delgado AV, Holcomb JB. Independent contributions of hypothermia and acidosis to coagulopathy in swine. J Trauma. 2005;58(5):1002-9; discussion 9-10.
  9. Stockmann H, Krannich A, Schroeder T, Storm C. Therapeutic temperature management after cardiac arrest and the risk of bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation. 2014; 85(11): 1494–503.
  10. Hogberg C, Erlinge D, Braun OO. Mild hypothermia does not attenuate platelet aggregation and may even increase ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation after clopidogrel treatment. Thromb J. 2009; 7: 2.
  11. Bjelland TW, Hjertner O, Klepstad P, Kaisen K, Dale O, Haugen BO. Antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel is reduced in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2010; 81(12): 1627–31.
  12. Ibrahim K, Christoph M, Schmeinck S, Schmieder K, Steiding K, Schoener L, Pfluecke C, Quick S, Mues C, Jellinghaus S, Wunderlich C, Strasser RH, Kolschmann S. High rates of prasugrel and ticagrelor non-responder in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2014; 85(5): 649–56.
  13. Bednar F, Kroupa J, Ondrakova M, Osmancik P, Kopa M, Motovska Z. Antiplatelet efficacy of P2Y inhibitors (prasugrel, ticagrelor, clopidogrel) in patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2015.
  14. Flierl U, Röntgen P, Zauner F, Tongers J, Bauersachs J, Schäfer A. Efficacy of platelet inhibition with prasugrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Thromb Haemost. 2016.
  15. Erlinge D, Gotberg M, Grines C, Dixon S, Baran K, Kandzari D, Olivecrona GK. A pooled analysis of the effect of endovascular cooling on infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. EuroIntervention. 2013; 8(12): 1435–40.
  16. Kim F, Nichol G, Maynard C, Hallstrom A, Kudenchuk PJ, Rea T, Copass MK, Carlbom D, Deem S, Longstreth WT, Jr., Olsufka M, Cobb LA. Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on survival and neurological status among adults with cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014; 311(1): 45–52.
  17. Perman SM, Grossestreuer AV, Wiebe DJ, Carr BG, Abella BS, Gaieski DF. The Utility of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome Patients With an Initial Nonshockable Rhythm. Circulation. 2015; 132(22): 2146–51.

Temporäre Unterstützungssysteme im kardiogenen Schock

Christian Napp, Bernhard Schieffer und Johann Bauersachs

  1. de Vreede-Swagemakers JJ, Gorgels AP, Dubois-Arbouw WI, van Ree JW, Daemen MJ, Houben LG, et al. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the 1990's: a population-based study in the Maastricht area on incidence, characteristics and survival. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30(6): 1500–5.
  2. Atwood C, Eisenberg MS, Herlitz J, Rea TD. Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe. Resuscitation. 2005; 67(1): 75–80.
  3. Dumas F, Cariou A, Manzo-Silberman S, Grimaldi D, Vivien B, Rosencher J, et al. Immediate percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with better survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: insights from the PROCAT (Parisian Region Out of hospital Cardiac ArresT) registry. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2010; 3(3): 200–7.
  4. Berdowski J, Berg RA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW. Global incidences of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and survival rates: Systematic review of 67 prospective studies. Resuscitation. 2010; 81(11): 1479–87.
  5. Wong MK, Morrison LJ, Qiu F, Austin PC, Cheskes S, Dorian P, et al. Trends in short- and long-term survival among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients alive at hospital arrival. Circulation. 2014; 130(21): 1883–90.
  6. Smith K, Andrew E, Lijovic M, Nehme Z, Bernard S. Quality of life and functional outcomes 12 months after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation. 2015; 131(2): 174–81.
  7. Goldberger ZD, Chan PS, Berg RA, Kronick SL, Cooke CR, Lu M, et al. Duration of resuscitation efforts and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study. Lancet. 2012; 380(9852): 1473–81.
  8. Braunwald E, Kloner RA. The stunned myocardium: prolonged, postischemic ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 1982; 66(6): 1146–9.
  9. Stewart GC, Stevenson LW. Keeping left ventricular assist device acceleration on track. Circulation. 2011; 123(14): 1559-68; discussion 68.
  10. Hochman JS. Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: expanding the paradigm. Circulation. 2003; 107(24): 2998–3002.
  11. Hambraeus K, Jensevik K, Lagerqvist B, Lindahl B, Carlsson R, Farzaneh-Far R, et al. Long-Term Outcome of Incomplete Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry). JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2016; 9(3): 207–15.
  12. Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann FJ, Ferenc M, Olbrich HG, Hausleiter J, et al. Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367(14): 1287–96.
  13. Zeymer U, Hochadel M, Hauptmann KE, Wiegand K, Schuhmacher B, Brachmann J, et al. Intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: results of the ALKK-PCI registry. Clinical research in cardiology : official journal of the German Cardiac Society. 2013; 102(3): 223–7.
  14. Werdan K, Gielen S, Ebelt H, Hochman JS. Mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock. European heart journal. 2014; 35(3): 156–67.
  15. Napp LC, Kuhn C, Hoeper MM, Vogel-Claussen J, Haverich A, Schafer A, et al. Cannulation strategies for percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults. Clin Res Cardiol. 2016; 105(4): 283–96.
  16. Chen YS, Lin JW, Yu HY, Ko WJ, Jerng JS, Chang WT, et al. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with assisted extracorporeal life-support versus conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults with in-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study and propensity analysis. Lancet. 2008; 372(9638): 554–61.
  17. O'Neill WW, Kleiman NS, Moses J, Henriques JP, Dixon S, Massaro J, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical trial of hemodynamic support with Impella 2.5 versus intra-aortic balloon pump in patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention: the PROTECT II study. Circulation. 2012; 126(14): 1717–27.
  18. O'Neill WW, Schreiber T, Wohns DH, Rihal C, Naidu SS, Civitello AB, et al. The current use of Impella 2.5 in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: results from the USpella Registry. J Interv Cardiol. 2014; 27(1): 1–11.
  19. Sjauw KD, Konorza T, Erbel R, Danna PL, Viecca M, Minden HH, et al. Supported high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention with the Impella 2.5 device the Europella registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54(25): 2430–4.
  20. Burzotta F, Trani C, Doshi SN, Townend J, van Geuns RJ, Hunziker P, et al. Impella ventricular support in clinical practice: Collaborative viewpoint from a European expert user group. Int J Cardiol. 2015; 201: 684–91.
  21. Myat A, Patel N, Tehrani S, Banning AP, Redwood SR, Bhatt DL. Percutaneous circulatory assist devices for high-risk coronary intervention. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2015; 8(2): 229–44.
  22. Fuhrman BP, Hernan LJ, Rotta AT, Heard CM, Rosenkranz ER. Pathophysiology of cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Artif Organs. 1999; 23(11): 966–9.
  23. Ostadal P, Mlcek M, Kruger A, Hala P, Lacko S, Mates M, et al. Increasing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow negatively affects left ventricular performance in a porcine model of cardiogenic shock. J Transl Med. 2015; 13: 266.
  24. Soleimani B, Pae WE. Management of left ventricular distension during peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock. Perfusion. 2012; 27(4): 326–31.
  25. Anderson MB, Goldstein J, Milano C, Morris LD, Kormos RL, Bhama J, et al. Benefits of a novel percutaneous ventricular assist device for right heart failure: The prospective RECOVER RIGHT study of the Impella RP device. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015; 34(12): 1549–60.
  26. Ius F, Sommer W, Tudorache I, Avsar M, Siemeni T, Salman J, et al. Veno-veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure with severe haemodynamic impairment: technique and early outcomes. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2015; 20(6): 761–7.

Die Intensivmedizinische Rehabilitation (IMFR) –Schnittstelle zwischen Intensivmedizin und (Früh)-Rehabilitation

Prof. Dr. med. habil. Bernd Frank

  1. Frank B.  17.05.2008, 5. Kieler Symposium für Herzchirurgische Intensivmedizin und Intensivpflege „Intensivmedizinische Aspekte der Langzeittherapie“
  2. Mundiyanapurath S.,  Rudloff H., Prädikatoren für die Beurteilung des Therapieerfolgs einer neurologischen Frührehabilitationsbehandlung bei Patienten mit hypoxisch- anoxischer            Hirnschädigung nach kardiopulmonaler Reanimation – eine prospektive Studie. Neurol Rehabil 2009, 15 (3), 176–182.
  3. Stier – Jarmer M, Koenig E, Stucki G. Strukturen der neurologischen Frührehabilitation(Phase B) in Deutschland. Phys Med Rehab Kuror 2002; 12; 260–271
  4. Janzen RW CH. Prognose kardiopulmonal reanimierter Patienten – ein Diskussionsbeitrag: Grenzen der Intensivtherapie; DTSCH Ärztebl 2008; 105; 130
  5. Torgesen J, Strand  K, B, Bjellland T. W. et al., Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life after a cardiac and therapeutic hypothermia, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2010; 54: 721–728
  6. Lilja G, Nielsen N, Friberg H et al., Cognitive function after cardia arrest an temperature management; rationale und description of a sub-study in the Target Temperature Management trial, BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2013, 13, 85
  7. von Wild KRH, Laurey S, Dolce G, Schmutzhardt E. Syndrom reaktionsloser Wachheit.       Zur Begriffsbestimmung  „Apallisches Syndrom“  – „Wachkoma“ – „Permanenter vegetativer     Zustand“; Neurol Rehab 2011; 17; 209–215.
  8. Andrews K, Murphy L, Munday R, Littlewood C. Misdiagnosis of the vegetative state: Retrospektive Study in Rehabilitation Unit. BMJ; 1996; 313; 13–16.
  9. Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft für Rehabilitation (BAR). Empfehlung zur neurologischen Rehabilitation von Patienten mit schweren und schwersten Hirnschädigungen in den Phasen B und C; 
  10. Frank B. Langzeitrehabilitation schwer schädelhirnverletzter Menschen. Vortrag             Sicherheitskonferenz Stuttgart, Stiftung ZNS; 27.09.2013. 
  11. Frank B. Beatmung und Weaning – Schnittstelle zur Frührehabilitation. Vortrag Bellikon         03.03.2011.
  12. Schönle PW, Busch EW, Ebke M et al. Qualitätsstandards in der neurologisch-neurochirurgischen Frührehabilitation; Neurol Rehabil 2015; 21 (4); 185–194.
  13. OPS 8-552 Neurologisch-neurochirurgische Frührehabilitation DIMDI OPS Version 2015
  14. Wallesch CW. Frührehabilitation und OPS 8-552. Akt Neurol 2009, 93–97.
  15. Hagel K, Rietz. Die Prognose des apallischen Syndroms. Anäshesist 1998, 47, 677–682.
  16. Middelkamp W, Moulaert VR, Verbunt JA, van Heugten CM, Bakx WG, Wade T. Live after survival: long term daily life functioning and quality of live of patients with hypoxic brain injury as a result  of a cardiac arrest. Clin Rehabil 2007, 21, 425–431.
  17. Hoffmann B, Karbe H, Krusch C, Müller B, Pause M, Prosiegel M, Paschendorf W, et al. Patientencharakteristika in der neurologisch/neurochirurgischen Frührehabilitation (Phase B): Eine Multizentrische Erfassung im Jahr 2002 in Deutschland. Akt Neurol. 2006, 33, 287–296.

Stellenwert der Herzkatheter-Untersuchung beim reanimierten Patienten

Daniel Duerschmied, Andreas Schäfer

  1. Dumas F, Cariou A, Manzo-Silberman S, et al. Immediate percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with better survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: insights from the PROCAT (Parisian Region Out of hospital Cardiac ArresT) registry. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2010;3:200-7.
  2. Mooney MR, Unger BT, Boland LL, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: evaluation of a regional system to increase access to cooling. Circulation 2011;124:206-14.
  3. Peberdy MA, Donnino MW, Callaway CW, et al. Impact of percutaneous coronary intervention performance reporting on cardiac resuscitation centers: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2013;128:762-73.
  4. Steg PG, James SK, Atar D, et al. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2569-619.
  5. Rab T, Kern KB, Tamis-Holland JE, et al. Cardiac Arrest: A Treatment Algorithm for Emergent Invasive Cardiac Procedures in the Resuscitated Comatose Patient. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;66:62-73.
  6. Soar J, Nolan JP, Bottiger BW, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 2015;95:100-47.
  7. Nikolaou NI, Arntz HR, Bellou A, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 8. Initial management of acute coronary syndromes. Resuscitation 2015;95:264-77.
  8. Bossaert LL, Perkins GD, Askitopoulou H, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015: Section 11. The ethics of resuscitation and end-of-life decisions. Resuscitation 2015;95:302-11.
  9. Ortega-Deballon I, Hornby L, Shemie SD, Bhanji F, Guadagno E. Extracorporeal resuscitation for refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in adults: A systematic review of international practices and outcomes. Resuscitation 2016;101:12-20.
  10. Lamhaut L, Jouffroy R, Soldan M, et al. Safety and feasibility of prehospital extra corporeal life support implementation by non-surgeons for out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 2013;84:1525-9.
  11. Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2016;37:267-315.
  12. Fu Y, Goodman S, Chang WC, Van De Werf F, Granger CB, Armstrong PW. Time to treatment influences the impact of ST-segment resolution on one-year prognosis: insights from the assessment of the safety and efficacy of a new thrombolytic (ASSENT-2) trial. Circulation 2001;104:2653-9.
  13. Gibson CM. Time is myocardium and time is outcomes. Circulation 2001;104:2632-4.
  14. Lee WW, Marinelli B, van der Laan AM, et al. PET/MRI of inflammation in myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:153-63.
  15. Leuschner F, Nahrendorf M. Molecular imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction: considerations for the bench and perspectives for the clinic. Circ Res 2011;108:593-606.
  16. Hagemeyer CE, von Zur Muhlen C, von Elverfeldt D, Peter K. Single-chain antibodies as diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents. Thromb Haemost 2009;101:1012-9.
  17. McAteer MA, Sibson NR, von Zur Muhlen C, et al. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of acute brain inflammation using microparticles of iron oxide. Nat Med 2007;13:1253-8.
  18. Duerschmied D, Meiner M, Peter K, et al. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging allows the detection of activated platelets in a new mouse model of coronary artery thrombosis. Invest Radiol 2011;46:618-23.
  19. von zur Mühlen C, Peter K, Ali Z, et al. Visualization of activated platelets by targeted magnetic resonance imaging utilizing conformation-specific antibodies against glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. J Vasc Res 2009;46:6-14.
  20. von Zur Muhlen C, von Elverfeldt D, Moeller JA, et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Targeted Toward Activated Platelets Allows In Vivo Detection of Thrombosis and Monitoring of Thrombolysis. Circulation 2008;118:258-67.
  21. Forssmann W. Die Sondierung des rechten Herzens. Klinische Wochenschrift 1929;45:2085-7.
  22. Gruntzig A. Transluminal dilatation of coronary-artery stenosis. Lancet 1978;1:263.
  23. Sigwart U, Puel J, Mirkovitch V, Joffre F, Kappenberger L. Intravascular stents to prevent occlusion and restenosis after transluminal angioplasty. N Engl J Med 1987;316:701-6.
  24. Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1045-57.
  25. Montalescot G, van 't Hof AW, Lapostolle F, et al. Prehospital ticagrelor in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1016-27.
  26. Montalescot G, Bolognese L, Dudek D, et al. Pretreatment with prasugrel in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2013;369:999-1010.
  27. Flierl U, Rontgen P, Zauner F, et al. Platelet inhibition with prasugrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Thromb Haemost 2016;115.
  28. Kubica J, Kozinski M, Navarese EP, et al. Cangrelor: An emerging therapeutic option for patients with coronary artery disease. Curr Med Res Opin 2014.
  29. Giugliano RP, White JA, Bode C, et al. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2176-90.