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Kryptogener Ischämischer Schlaganfall bei Persistierendem Foramen Ovale: neue Studien zeigen Überlegenheit des PFO-Verschlusses
Dr.Hebun Erdur

  1. Kamel H. Evidence-Based Management of Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients With Ischemic Stroke. JAMA Neurol. 2018;75:147–148. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3982.
  2. Mas JL, Derumeaux G, Guillon B, et al. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Anticoagulation vs. Antiplatelets after Stroke. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1011–1021. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1705915.
  3. Søndergaard L, Kasner SE, Rhodes JF, et al. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1033–1042. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1707404.
  4. Furlan AJ, Reisman M, Massaro J, et al. Closure or medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:991–9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1009639.
  5. Meier B, Kalesan B, Mattle HP, et al. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic embolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1083–91. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1211716.
  6. Carroll JD, Saver JL, Thaler DE, et al. Closure of patent foramen ovale versus medical therapy after cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1092–100. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301440.
  7. Kent DM, Dahabreh IJ, Ruthazer R, et al. Device Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale After Stroke: Pooled Analysis of Completed Randomized Trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:907–17. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.12.023.
  8. Saver JL, Carroll JD, Thaler DE, et al. Long-Term Outcomes of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Medical Therapy after Stroke. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1022–1032. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1610057.
  9. Mas JL, Chatellier G. Closure of patent foramen ovale in "cryptogenic" stroke: Has the story come to an end? Int J Stroke. 2018:1747493017751243. doi: 10.1177/1747493017751243.
  10. Thaler DE, Ruthazer R, Weimar C, et al. Recurrent stroke predictors differ in medically treated patients with pathogenic vs. other PFOs. Neurology. 2014;83:221–6. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000589.
  11. Ntaios G, Papavasileiou V, Sagris D, et al. Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Stroke. 2018;49:412–418. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.020030.
  12. Braemswig TB, Scheitz JF, Nolte CH. Trials of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2599. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1714320.


Herzerkrankungen bei polymorbiden Patienten
Prof. Dr. Ursula Müller-Werdan

  1. Battegay E, Cheetham M, Holzer BM, Nowak A, Schmidt D, Rampini S. Multimorbiditätsmanagement im Alltagsdilemma. Internist 2017; 58: 344–353
  2. Battegay E, Cheetham M, Holzer BM, Nowak A, Schmidt D, Rampini S. Multimorbiditätsmanagement im Alltagsdilemma. Internist 2017; 58: 344–353
  3. Baumgartner H, Falk V, Bax JJ, De Bonis M, Hamm C, Holm PJ, Iung B, Lancellotti P, Lansac E, Rodriguez Muñoz D, Rosenhek R, Sjögren J, Tornos Mas P, Vahanian A, Walther T, Wendler O, Windecker S, Zamorano JL; ESC Scientific Document Group. Guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease. Eur Heart J 2017; 38:2739–2791
  4. Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G, et al. 2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidaemias. Eur Heart J 2016; 37:2999–3058.
  5. Ibanez B, James S, Agewall S, Antunes MJ, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Bueno H, Caforio ALP, Crea F, Goudevenos JA, Halvorsen S, Hindricks G, Kastrati A, Lenzen MJ, Prescott E, Roffi M, Valgimigli M, Varenhorst C, Vranckx P, Widimský P; ESC Scientific Document Group . 2017 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).  Eur Heart J 2018; 39:119–177
  6. Nationale VersorgungsLeitlinie Chronische Herzinsuffizienz Langfassung. 2. Auflage 2017. Version 3. AWMF-Register-Nr.: Statins for the treatment of dementia.
  7. Angermann CE. Comorbidities in Heart Failure: A Key Issue. Eur J Heart Fail 2009; 8 (Suppl 1):i5–i10
  8. Jopp DS, Boerner K, Rott C. Health and Disease at Age 100. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016;113:203–210.
  9. Müller-Werdan, U.  Was ein junges Herz ausmacht und wie wir es lange erhalten können. Geriatr Rep 2018a; 13: 16. doi.org/10.1007/s42090-018-0103-5
  10. Müller-Werdan U. Physiologische Veränderungen im Alter. In: Anästhesie beim geriatrischen Patienten (Herausgeber: Zink W, Graf B, Zausig Y, Heppner HJ). De Gruyter 2018b, im Druck
  11. Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and Cardiac Aging: Major Shareholders in Cardiovascular Disease Enterprises. Part I: Aging Arteries: A “Set Up” for Vascular Disease. Circulation 2003a; 107:139–146.
  12. Lakatta EG, Levy D. Arterial and Cardiac Aging: Major Shareholders in Cardiovascular Disease Enterprises. Part II: The Aging Heart in Health: Links to Heart Disease Circulation 2003b; 107:346–354.
  13. Lakatta EG. Arterial and Cardiac Aging: Major Shareholders in Cardiovascular Disease Enterprises. Part III: Cellular and Molecular Clues to Heart and Arterial Aging. Circulation 2003; 107:490–497
  14. Carrick-Ranson G, Hastings JL, Bhella PS, Shibata S, Fujimoto N, Palmer MD, Boyd K, Levine BD. Effect of healthy aging on left ventricular relaxation and diastolic suction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012; 303:H315–H322
  15. Nakou ES, Parthenakis FI, Kallergis EM, Marketou ME, Nakos KS, Vardas PE. Healthy aging and myocardium: A complicated process with various effects in cardiac structure and physiology. Int J Cardiol 2016; 209:167–175
  16. Rijnbeek PR, van Herpen G, Bots ML, Man S, Verweij N, Hofman A, Hillege H, Numans ME, Swenne CA, Witteman JC, Kors JA. Normal values of the electrocardiogram for ages 16-90 years. J Electrocardiol 2014; 47:914–921
  17. Khan SS, Singer BD, Vaughan DE. Molecular and physiological manifestations and measurement of aging in humans. Aging Cell 2017;16:624–633
  18. Werdan K, Schmidt H, Ebelt H, Zorn-Pauly K, Koidl B, Hoke RS, Heinroth K, Müller-Werdan U. Impaired regulation of cardiac function in sepsis, SIRS, and MODS. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 87:266–27
  19. The SPRINT Investigators. A Randomized Trail of Intensive Cae versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2103–2116
  20. Williamson JD, Supiano MA, Applegate WB, Berlowitz DR, Campbell RC, Chertow GM, Fine LJ, Haley WE, Hawfield AT, Ix JH, Kitzman DW, Kostis JB, Krousel-Wood MA, Launer LJ, Oparil S, Rodriguez CJ, Roumie CL, Shorr RI, Sink KM, Wadley VG, Whelton PK, Whittle J, Woolard NF, Wright JT Jr, Pajewski NM; SPRINT Research Group. Intensive vs standard Blood Pressure Control and Cardiovascualr Disease Outcomes in Adults aged 75 Years: A Randomized Clincial Trial. JAMA 2016;315(24):2673–2682 
  21. Bavishi C, Bangalore S, Messerli FH. Outcomes of Intensive blood Pressure Lowering in Older Hypertensive Patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69:486–493
  22. Hoffmann U. Blutdruckzielwerte. Je niedriger, desto besser ist nicht für alle Patienten gut. [Blood pressure targets : The lower the better does not suit all]. Internist (Berl) 2018; 59:309–315
  23. Schrader J, Schrader B. Antihypertensive Therapie im Alter. Herz 2018; 43:197-206
  24. Materson BJ, Garcia-Estrada M, Preston RA. Hypertension in the frail elderly. J Am Soc Hypertens 2016;  10: 536–541
  25. Benetos A, Bulpitt CJ, Petrovic M, Ungar A, Agabiti Rosei E, Cherubini A, Redon J, Grodzicki T, Dominiczak A, Strandberg T, Mancia G. An Expert Opinion From the European Society of Hypertension-European Union Geriatric Medicine Society Working Group on the Management of Hypertension in Very Old, Frail Subjects. Hypertension 2016; 67:820–825
  26. Böhm M, Schumacher H, Teo KK, Lonn EM, Mahfoud F, Mann JFE, Mancia G, Redon J, Schmieder RE, Sliwa K, Weber MA, Williams B, Yusuf S Achieved blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: results from ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. Lancet 2017; 389:2226–2237
  27. Middeke M. Editorial zum Dossier „Arterielle Hypertonie“. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2017; 142:1405
  28. Mancia G, Fagard R et al.  ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2013; 34:2159–219
  29. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC Jr, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA Sr, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension 2018; 71:1269-1324
  30. Silverman MG, Ference BA, Im K, Wiviott SD, Giugliano RP, Grundy SM, Braunwald E, Sabatine MS. Association Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA 316:1289–1297  
  31. Nicholls SJ, Puri R, Anderson T, et al. Effect of Evolocumab on Progression of Coronary Disease in Statin-Treated Patients  The GLAGOV Randomized Clinical Trail. JAMA 2016; 316:2373–2384
  32. Windler E, Beil FU, Klose G, Thiery J. Lipidsenkene Therapie im Alter. Wer proftiert von welchem Zielwert? ( Lipid-lowering therapy in the elderly : Who profits from which target values?] Herz 2018;43:230–237
  33. Leya M, Stone NJ. Statin Prescribing in the Elderly: Special Considerations. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2017; 19:47
  34. Mortensen MB, Falk E. Primary Prevention With Statins in the Elderly. J Am Coll Cardiol 71:85–94
  35. Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, Armitage J, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Blumenthal R, Danesh J, Smith GD, DeMets D, Evans S, Law M, MacMahon S, Martin S, Neal B, Poulter N, Preiss D, Ridker P, Roberts I, Rodgers A, Sandercock P, Schulz K, Sever P, Simes J, Smeeth L, Wald N, Yusuf S, Peto R. Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy.  Lancet 2016; 388:2532–2561
  36. McGuinness B, Craig D, Bullock R, Malouf R, Passmore P. Statins for the treatment of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 8;(7):CD007514. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007514.pub3
  37. McGuinness B, Cardwell CR, Passmore P. Statin withdrawal in people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Sep 9;9:CD012050. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012050.pub2
  38. McGuinness B, Craig D, Bullock R, Passmore P. Statins for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 4;(1):CD003160. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003160.pub3
  39. Wehling M, Burkhardt H : Arzneitherapie für Ältere. Springer 2016
  40. Lechleitner M. Lipidtherapie beim geriatrischen Patienten. Z Gefässmed 2013; 10: 20-22
  41. Kooistra HA, Calf AH, Piersma-Wichers M, Kluin-Nelemans HC, Izaks GJ, Veeger NJ, Meijer K. Risk of bleeding and thrombosis in patients 70years and older using vitamin K antagonists. JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176:1176–1183
  42. Fohtung RB, Novak E, Rich MW. Effect of New Oral Anticoagulants on Prescribing Practices for Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2017;65:2405–2412
  43. Stöllberger C. Drug interactions with new oral anticoagulants in elderly patients. Exp Rev Clin Pharmacol 2017; Aug 21. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2017.1370369. [Epub ahead of print]

Herz und Endokrinologie
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer

  1. Hintze, G., et al., Risk of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis after coronary angiography: an investigation in 788 unselected subjects. Eur J Endocrinol, 1999. 140(3): p. 264–7.
  2. Madathil, A., et al., Levothyroxine improves abnormal cardiac bioenergetics in subclinical hypothyroidism: a cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2015. 100(4): p. E607–10.
  3. Scherer, T., et al., Levothyroxine replacement in hypothyroid humans reduces myocardial lipid load and improves cardiac function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2014. 99(11): p. E2341-6.
  4. Ruhla, S., et al., Levothyroxine medication is associated with adiposity independent of TSH. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 2012. 120(6): p. 351–4.
  5. Ruhla, S., et al., A high normal TSH is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2010. 72(5): p. 696–701.
  6. Taylor, P.N., et al., Clinical review: A review of the clinical consequences of variation in thyroid function within the reference range. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2013. 98(9): p. 3562–71.
  7. Richardson, R.V., et al., Cardiac GR and MR: From Development to Pathology. Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2016. 27(1): p. 35–43.
  8. Sarzani, R., et al., Renin-angiotensin system, natriuretic peptides, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension: an integrated view in humans. J Hypertens, 2008. 26(5): p. 831–43.
  9. Diederich, S., et al., The Simultaneous Measurement of Plasma-Aldosterone- and -Renin-Concentration Allows Rapid Classification of all Disorders of the Renin-Aldosterone System. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 2007. 115(7): p. 433–8.
  10. Ge, D., et al., Multilocus analyses of Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system gene variants on blood pressure at rest and during behavioral stress in young normotensive subjects. Hypertension, 2007. 49(1): p. 107–12.
  11. Pitt, B., J. Pedro Ferreira, and F. Zannad, Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with heart failure: current experience and future perspectives. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother, 2017. 3(1): p. 48–57.
  12. Ferreira, J.P., et al., Tailoring mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy in heart failure patients: are we moving towards a personalized approach? Eur J Heart Fail, 2017. 19(8): p. 974–986.
  13. Pitt, B. and P. Rossignol, Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in High-Risk Heart Failure Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and/or Chronic Kidney Disease. J Am Heart Assoc, 2017. 6(12).
  14. Pitts, R., et al., Aldosterone Does Not Predict Cardiovascular Events Following Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients Initially Without Heart Failure. J Am Heart Assoc, 2017. 6(1).
  15. Rafique, Z., et al., Expert Panel Recommendations for the Identification and Management of Hyperkalemia and Role of Patiromer in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Heart Failure. J Manag Care Spec Pharm, 2017. 23(4-a Suppl): p. S10–S19.
  16. Akanji, A.O. and R.J. Smith, The insulin-like growth factor system, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk. Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 2012. 10(1): p. 3–13.
  17. LeRoith, D. and S. Yakar, Mechanisms of disease: metabolic effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 3(3): p. 302–10.
  18. Firth, S.M. and R.C. Baxter, Cellular actions of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Endocr Rev, 2002. 23(6): p. 824–54.
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  21. Novosyadlyy, R. and D. Leroith, Insulin-like growth factors and insulin: at the crossroad between tumor development and longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2012. 67(6): p. 640–51.
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