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Medikamentöse Therapie der Herzinsuffizienz mit reduzierter Pumpfunktion
Maximiliane Hallbaum Johann Bauersachs, Dominik Berliner 

  1. Heart Failure Society of America, Lindenfeld J, Albert NM, Boehmer JP, Collins SP, Ezekowitz JA, et al. HFSA 2010 Comprehensive Heart Failure Practice Guideline. J Card Fail 2010 Jun;16(6):e1–194.
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  6. Packer M, Poole-Wilson PA, Armstrong PW, Cleland JG, Horowitz JD, Massie BM, et al. Comparative effects of low and high doses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. ATLAS Study Group. Circulation 1999 Dec 7;100(23):2312–2318.
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  8. Pitt B, Anker SD, Bushinsky DA, Kitzman DW, Zannad F, Huang IZ, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of RLY5016, a polymeric potassium binder, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with chronic heart failure (the PEARL-HF) trial. Eur Heart J 2011 Apr;32(7):820–828.
  9. Pitt B, Bakris GL, Bushinsky DA, Garza D, Mayo MR, Stasiv Y, et al. Effect of patiromer on reducing serum potassium and preventing recurrent hyperkalaemia in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease on RAAS inhibitors. Eur J Heart Fail 2015 Oct;17(10):1057–1065.
  10. Bakris GL, Pitt B, Weir MR, Freeman MW, Mayo MR, Garza D, et al. Effect of Patiromer on Serum Potassium Level in Patients With Hyperkalemia and Diabetic Kidney Disease: The AMETHYST-DN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2015 Jul 14;314(2):151–161.
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  13. Hjalmarson A, Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, Wedel H, Waagstein F, Kjekshus J, et al. Effects of controlled-release metoprolol on total mortality, hospitalizations, and well-being in patients with heart failure: the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF). MERIT-HF Study Group. JAMA 2000 Mar 8;283(10):1295–1302.
  14. Frohlich H, Torres L, Tager T, Schellberg D, Corletto A, Kazmi S, et al. Bisoprolol compared with carvedilol and metoprolol succinate in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure. Clin Res Cardiol 2017 Apr 22.
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  17. Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, van Veldhuisen DJ, Swedberg K, Shi H, et al. Eplerenone in patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. N Engl J Med 2011 Jan 6;364(1):11–21.
  18. Bauersachs J, Jaisser F, Toto R. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment in cardiac and renal diseases. Hypertension 2015 Feb;65(2):257–263.
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  21. Swedberg K, Komajda M, Bohm M, Borer JS, Ford I, Dubost-Brama A, et al. Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled study. Lancet 2010 Sep 11;376(9744):875–885.
  22. D'Elia E, Iacovoni A, Vaduganathan M, Lorini FL, Perlini S, Senni M. Neprilysin inhibition in heart failure: mechanisms and substrates beyond modulating natriuretic peptides. Eur J Heart Fail 2017 Jun;19(6):710–717.
  23. McMurray JJ, Packer M, Desai AS, Gong J, Lefkowitz MP, Rizkala AR, et al. Angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition versus enalapril in heart failure. N Engl J Med 2014 Sep 11;371(11):993–1004.
  24. Vardeny O, Claggett B, Packer M, Zile MR, Rouleau J, Swedberg K, et al. Efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril at lower than target doses in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the PARADIGM-HF trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2016 Oct;18(10):1228–1234.
  25. Williams B, Cockcroft JR, Kario K, Zappe DH, Brunel PC, Wang Q, et al. Effects of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Olmesartan on Central Hemodynamics in the Elderly With Systolic Hypertension: The PARAMETER Study. Hypertension 2017 Mar;69(3):411–420.
  26. Cannon JA, Shen L, Jhund PS, Kristensen SL, Kober L, Chen F, et al. Dementia-related adverse events in PARADIGM-HF and other trials in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Eur J Heart Fail 2017 Jan;19(1):129–137.
  27. Digitalis Investigation Group. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 1997 Feb 20;336(8):525–533.
  28. Adams KF,Jr, Butler J, Patterson JH, Gattis Stough W, Bauman JL, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. Dose response characterization of the association of serum digoxin concentration with mortality outcomes in the Digitalis Investigation Group trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2016 Aug;18(8):1072–1081.
  29. Gheorghiade M, Patel K, Filippatos G, Anker SD, van Veldhuisen DJ, Cleland JG, et al. Effect of oral digoxin in high-risk heart failure patients: a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the DIG trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2013 May;15(5):551–559.
  30. Bavendiek U, Aguirre Davila L, Koch A, Bauersachs J. Assumption versus evidence: the case of digoxin in atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Eur Heart J 2017 Jan 8.
  31. Jankowska EA, Drozd M, Ponikowski P. Iron Deficiency Treatment in Patients with Heart Failure. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2017;243:561–576.
  32. Ponikowski P, van Veldhuisen DJ, Comin-Colet J, Ertl G, Komajda M, Mareev V, et al. Beneficial effects of long-term intravenous iron therapy with ferric carboxymaltose in patients with symptomatic heart failure and iron deficiencydagger. Eur Heart J 2015 Mar 14;36(11):657–668.
  33. Ponikowski P, Filippatos G, Colet JC, Willenheimer R, Dickstein K, Luscher T, et al. The impact of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on renal function: an analysis of the FAIR-HF study. Eur J Heart Fail 2015 Mar;17(3):329–339.
  34. Gallo LA, Wright EM, Vallon V. Probing SGLT2 as a therapeutic target for diabetes: basic physiology and consequences. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2015 Mar;12(2):78–89.
  35. Verbrugge FH. Role of SGLT2 Inhibitors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep 2017 Aug;14(4):275–283.
  36. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, Bluhmki E, Hantel S, et al. Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2015 Nov 26;373(22):2117-2128.
  37. Pham SV, Chilton RJ. EMPA-REG OUTCOME: The Cardiologist's Point of View. Am J Cardiol 2017 Jul 1;120(1S):S53–S58.
  38. Fitchett D, Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Hantel S, Salsali A, et al. Heart failure outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME(R) trial. Eur Heart J 2016 May 14;37(19):1526–1534.

Peripartum-Kardiomyopathie
Tobias König, Valeska Abou Moulig, Tobias Pfeffer, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner und Johann Bauersachs  

  1. Berg CJ, Callaghan WM, Syverson C, Henderson Z. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1998 to 2005. Obstet Gynecol 2010 Dec;116(6):1302–1309.
  2. European Society of Gynecology (ESG), Association for European Paediatric Cardiology (AEPC), German Society for Gender Medicine (DGesGM), Regitz-Zagrosek V, Blomstrom Lundqvist C, Borghi C, et al. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: the Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2011 Dec;32(24):3147–3197.
  3. Sliwa K, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Petrie MC, Mebazaa A, Pieske B, Buchmann E, et al. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of peripartum cardiomyopathy: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripartum cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2010 Aug;12(8):767–778.
  4. Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Haghikia A, Nonhoff J, Bauersachs J. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: current management and future perspectives. Eur Heart J 2015 May 7;36(18):1090–1097.
  5. Bauersachs J, Arrigo M, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Veltmann C, Coats AJ, Crespo-Leiro MG, et al. Current management of patients with severe acute peripartum cardiomyopathy: practical guidance from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on peripartum cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2016 Sep;18(9):1096–1105.
  6. Haghikia A, Podewski E, Libhaber E, Labidi S, Fischer D, Roentgen P, et al. Phenotyping and outcome on contemporary management in a German cohort of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Basic Res Cardiol 2013 Jul;108(4):366-013-0366-9. Epub 2013 Jun 28.
  7. Sliwa K, Mebazaa A, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Petrie MC, Maggioni AP, Laroche C, et al. Clinical characteristics of patients from the worldwide registry on peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM): EURObservational Research Programme in conjunction with the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on PPCM. Eur J Heart Fail 2017 Sep;19(9):1131–1141.
  8. Bello N, Rendon IS, Arany Z. The relationship between pre-eclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Oct 29;62(18):1715–1723.
  9. Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Haghikia A, Berliner D, Vogel-Claussen J, Schwab J, Franke A, et al. Bromocriptine for the treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy: a multicentre randomized study. Eur Heart J 2017 Sep 14;38(35):2671–2679.
  10. Irizarry OC, Levine LD, Lewey J, Boyer T, Riis V, Elovitz MA, et al. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Between African American and Non-African American Women. JAMA Cardiol 2017 Nov 1;2(11):1256–1260.
  11. Bauersachs J. Poor Outcomes in Poor Patients?: Peripartum Cardiomyopathy-Not Just Black and White. JAMA Cardiol 2017 Nov 1;2(11):1261–1262.
  12. Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Sliwa K. Pathophysiology and epidemiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Nat Rev Cardiol 2014 Jun;11(6):364–370.
  13. Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Kaminski K, Podewski E, Bonda T, Schaefer A, Sliwa K, et al. A cathepsin D-cleaved 16 kDa form of prolactin mediates postpartum cardiomyopathy. Cell 2007 Feb 9;128(3):589–600.
  14. Halkein J, Tabruyn SP, Ricke-Hoch M, Haghikia A, Nguyen NQ, Scherr M, et al. MicroRNA-146a is a therapeutic target and biomarker for peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest 2013 May;123(5):2143–2154.
  15. Patten IS, Rana S, Shahul S, Rowe GC, Jang C, Liu L, et al. Cardiac angiogenic imbalance leads to peripartum cardiomyopathy. Nature 2012 May 9;485(7398):333–338.
  16. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JG, Coats AJ, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J 2016 Jul 14;37(27):2129–2200.
  17. Stapel B, Kohlhaas M, Ricke-Hoch M, Haghikia A, Erschow S, Knuuti J, et al. Low STAT3 expression sensitizes to toxic effects of beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation in peripartum cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 2017 Feb 1;38(5):349–361.
  18. Haghikia A, Tongers J, Berliner D, Konig T, Schafer A, Brehm M, et al. Early ivabradine treatment in patients with acute peripartum cardiomyopathy: Subanalysis of the German PPCM registry. Int J Cardiol 2016 Aug 1;216:165–167.
  19. Sliwa K, Blauwet L, Tibazarwa K, Libhaber E, Smedema JP, Becker A, et al. Evaluation of bromocriptine in the treatment of acute severe peripartum cardiomyopathy: a proof-of-concept pilot study. Circulation 2010 Apr 6;121(13):1465–1473.
  20. McNamara DM, Elkayam U, Alharethi R, Damp J, Hsich E, Ewald G, et al. Clinical Outcomes for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy in North America: Results of the IPAC Study (Investigations of Pregnancy-Associated Cardiomyopathy). J Am Coll Cardiol 2015 Aug 25;66(8):905–914.
  21. Arrigo M, Blet A, Mebazaa A. Bromocriptine for the treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy: welcome on BOARD. Eur Heart J 2017 Sep 14;38(35):2680–2682.
  22. Duncker D, Haghikia A, Konig T, Hohmann S, Gutleben KJ, Westenfeld R, et al. Risk for ventricular fibrillation in peripartum cardiomyopathy with severely reduced left ventricular function-value of the wearable cardioverter/defibrillator. Eur J Heart Fail 2014 Dec;16(12):1331–1336.
  23. Haghikia A, Rontgen P, Vogel-Claussen J, Schwab J, Westenfeld R, Ehlermann P, et al. Prognostic implication of right ventricular involvement in peripartum cardiomyopathy: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. ESC Heart Fail 2015 Dec;2(4):139–149.
  24. Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Haghikia A, Masuko D, Nonhoff J, Held D, Libhaber E, et al. Outcome of subsequent pregnancies in patients with a history of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2017 Mar 27.
  25. Elkayam U. Clinical characteristics of peripartum cardiomyopathy in the United States: diagnosis, prognosis, and management. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 Aug 9;58(7):659–670.

Akute Herzinsuffizienz: Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie
Tarek Bekfani, Sven Möbius-Winkler, P. Christian Schulze 

  1. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J 2016;37:2129–200.
  2. Fonarow GC, Committee ASA. The Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE): opportunities to improve care of patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure. Rev Cardiovasc Med 2003;4 Suppl 7:S21–30.
  3. Felker GM, Lee KL, Bull DA et al. Diuretic strategies in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. The New England journal of medicine 2011;364:797–805.
  4. Francis GS, Bartos JA, Adatya S. Inotropes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63:2069-2078.
  5. Mandawat A, Rao SV. Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices in Cardiogenic Shock. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2017;10.
  6. Feldman D, Pamboukian SV, Teuteberg JJ et al. The 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Guidelines for mechanical circulatory support: executive summary. J Heart Lung Transplant 2013;32:157–87.

Herzinsuffizienz mit erhaltener Ejektionsfraktion (HFpEF) und Herzinsuffizienz mit leicht eingeschränkter linksventrikulärer Funktion (HFmrEF) – Diagnose und Therapie
Rolf Wachter

  1. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. ESC Leitlinie 2016, Eur Heart J 2016; 37: 2129–200.
  2. McMurray JJ V, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 2012; 14: 803–69.
  3. Malm S, Frigstad S, Sagberg E, et al. Accurate and reproducible measurement of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction by contrast echocardiography. JACC 2004;44:1030–5.
  4. Tsuji K, Sakata Y, Nochioka K, et al. Characterization of heart failure patients with mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction - a report from the CHART-2 Study. Eur J Heart Fail 2017;19:1258–1269.
  5. Rastogi A, Novak E, Platts AE, Mann DL. Epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical outcomes for heart failure patients with a mid-range ejection fraction. Eur J Heart Fail 2017;19:1597–1605.
  6. Vedin O, Lam CS, Koh AS, et al. Significance of ischemic heart disease in patients with heart failure and preserved, midrange, and reduced ejectionf raction: a nationwide cohort study. Circ Heart Fail 2017;10:e003875
  7. Rickenbacher P, Kaufmann BA, Maeder MT, et al. Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction: a distinct clinical entity? Insights from the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF). Eur J Heart Fail 2017;19:1586–1596.
  8. Chioncel O, Lainscak M, Seferovic PM, et al. Epidemiology and one-year outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved, mid-range and reduced ejection fraction: an analysis of the ESC Heart Failure Long-Term Registry. Eur J Heart Fail 2017;19:1574–1585.
  9. Cleland JG, Tendera M, Adamus J, et al. The perindopril in elderly perople with chronic heart failure (PEP-CHF) study. Eur Heart J 2006;27:2338–45.
  10. Yusuf S, Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial. Lancet 2003;362:777–81.
  11. Edelmann F, Wachter R, Schmidt AG, et al. Effect of spironolactone on diastolic function and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the Aldo-DHF randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2013;309:781–91.
  12. Pitt B, Pfeffer MA, Assmann SF, et al. Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2014; 370:1383–92.
  13. Lund LH, et al. Eur J Heart Fail 2018, in press.
  14. Solomon SD, Claggett B, Lewis EF, et al. Influence of ejection fraction on outcomes and efficacy of spironolactone in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Eur Heart J 2016; 37:455–462.
  15. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart  Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation 2017;136:e137–e161.
  16. Cleland JGF, Bunting KV; Flather MD, et al. Beta-blockers for heart failure with reduced, mid-range, and preserved ejection fraction: an individual patient-level analysis of double-blind randomized trials. Eur Heart J 2017 Oct 10. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx564. [Epub ahead of print].
  17. Pandey A, Parashar A, Kumbhani D, et al. Exercise training in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Circ Heart Fail 2015; 8:33–40.
  18. Edelmann F, Bobenko A, Gelbrich G, et al. Exercise training in Diastolic Heart Failure (Ex-DHF): rationale and design of a multicentre, prospective, randomized, controlled, parallel group trial. Eur J Heart Fail 2017; 19:1067–74.
  19. Edelmann F, Stahrenberg R, Gelbrich G, et al. Contribution of comorbidities to functional impairment is higher in heart failure with preserved than with reduced ejection fraction. Clin Res Cardiol. 2011;100:755–64. 

Psychosomatische Aspekte der Herzinsuffizienz
Christoph Herrmann-Lingen 

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  2. Abramson J, Berger A, Krumholz HM, Vaccarino V. Depression and risk of heart failure among older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1725–1730.
  3. Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Davidson KW, et al.The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice: the emerging field of behavioral cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:637–651.
  4. Rieckmann N, Gerin W, Kronish IM et al. Course of depressive symptoms and medication adherence after acute coronary syndromes: an electronic medication monitoring study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:2218–2222.
  5. Herrmann-Lingen C. Herzinsuffizienz und Herztransplantation. In: Herrmann-Lingen C, Albus C, Titscher G. Psychokardiologie - Ein Praxisleitfaden für Ärzte und Psychologen. 2. Auflage. Köln: Deutscher Ärzteverlag, 2014:184–200.
  6. Scherer M, Stanske B, Wetzel D et al. Psychische Kosymptomatik von hausärztlichen Patienten mit Herzinsuffizienz. Herz 2006;31:347–354.
  7. Rutledge T, Reis VA, Linke SE et al. Depression in heart failure - a meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:1527–1537.
  8. Frenneaux MP. Autonomic changes in patients with heart failure and in post-myocardial infarction patients. Heart 2004;90:1248–1255.
  9. Kemp AH, Quintana DS, Gray MA et al. Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: a review and meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry 2010;67:1067–1074.
  10. Friedman BH, Thayer JF. Autonomic balance revisited: panic anxiety and heart rate variability. J Psychosom Res 1998;44:133–151.
  11. Sherwood A, Hinderliter AL, Watkins LL et al. Impaired endothelial function in coronary heart disease patients with depressive symptomatology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:656–659.
  12. Laghrissi-Thode F, Wagner WR, Pollock BG et al. Elevated platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin plasma levels in depressed patients with ischemic heart disease. Biol Psychiatry 1997;42:290–295.
  13. von Känel R, Mills PJ, Fainman C, Dimsdale JE. Effects of psychological stress and psychiatric disorders on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis: a biobehavioral pathway to coronary artery disease? Psychosom Med 2001;63:531–544.
  14. Pasic J, Levy WC, Sullivan MD. Cytokines in depression and heart failure. Psychosom Med 2003;65:181–193.
  15. Dantzer R, Kelley KW. Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain Behav Immun 2007;21:153–160.
  16. Meyer T, Stanske B, Kochen MM et al. Elevated serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor α are both associated with vital exhaustion in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Psychosomatics 2010;51:248–256. 
  17. Parissis JT, Fountoulaki K, Paraskevaidis I, Kremastinos D. Depression in chronic heart failure: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2005;14:567–577.
  18. Grippo AJ, Francis J, Weiss RM, et al. Cytokine mediation of experimental heart failure-induced anhedonia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003;284:R666–73.
  19. Herrmann-Lingen C, Binder L, Klinge M et al. High Plasma Levels of N-Terminal pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Associated With Low Anxiety in Severe Heart Failure. Psychosom Med 2003;65: 517–522.
  20. Arlt J, Jahn H, Kellner M, et al. Modulation of sympathetic activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone and atrial natriuretic peptide. Neuropeptides 2003;37:362–368.
  21. Ströhle A, Feller C, Strasburger CJ et al. Anxiety modulation by the heart? Aerobic exercise and atrial natriuretic peptide. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003;31:1127–1130.
  22. Meyer T, Herrrmann-Lingen C, Chavanon ML, Nolte K, Pasedach CA, Binder L, Pieske B, Hasenfuß G, Wachter R, Edelmann F. Higher plasma levels of MR-pro atrial natriuretic peptide are linked to less anxiety. Results from the observational DIAST-CHF study. Clin Res Cardiol 2015 2015;104:574–81.
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