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Literatur:

ESUS: Ursachen, Diagnostik, Therapie

J. Brachmann

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  3. Seet RC, Friedman PA, Rabinstein AA. Prolonged rhythm monitoring for the detection of occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in ischemic stroke of unknown cause. Circulation. 2011;124 (4):477–86.
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  5. Seet RC, Friedman PA, Rabinstein AA. Prolonged rhythm monitoring for the detection of occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in ischemic stroke of unknown cause. Circulation. 2011;124(4):477–86.
  6. Rizos T, Güntner J, Jenetzky E, Mar- quardt L, Reichardt C, Becker R, et al. Continuous Stroke Unit Electrocardio- graphic Monitoring Versus 24-Hour Holter Electrocardiography for Detec- tion of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation After Stroke. Stroke. 2012;43(10):2689–94.
  7. Rizos T, Quilitzsch A, Busse O, Hae- useler KG, Endres M, Heuschmann P, Veltkamp R. Diagnostic work-up for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after acute ischemic stroke: cross- sectional survey on German stroke units. Stroke. 2015; 46(6):1693–5.
  8. Sposato LA, Cipriano LE, Saposnik G, Ruiz Vargas E, Riccio PM, Hachinski V. Diagnosis of atrial fibrillation after stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2015; 14 (4):377–87.
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  13. Sacco RL, Ellenberg JH, Mohr JP, Tatemichi TK, Hier DB, Price TR, et al. Infarcts of undetermined cause: the NINCDS Stroke Data Bank. Ann Neurol. 1989; 25(4):382–90.
  14. Hart RG, Diener HC, Coutts SB, Easton JD, Granger CB, O'Donnell MJ, et al. Embolic strokes of undetermined source: the case for a new clinical construct. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(4): 429–38.
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  16. Sanna T, Diener HC, Passman RS, Di Lazzaro V, Bernstein RA, Morillo CA, et al. Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2014; 370(26): 2478–86.
  17. Hart RG, Diener HC, Coutts SB, Easton JD, Granger CB, O'Donnell MJ, et al. Embolic strokes of undetermined source: the case for a new clinical construct. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(4):429–38.
  18. Hart RG, Diener HC, Coutts SB, Easton JD, Granger CB, O'Donnell MJ, et al. Embolic strokes of undetermined source: the case for a new clinical construct. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(4):429–38.
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  22. Homma S, Thompson JL, Pullicino PM, Levin B, Freudenberger RS, Teerlink JR, et al. Warfarin and aspirin in patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm. N Engl J Med. 2012; 366(20):1859–69. 
  23. Connolly, S. J., et al. (2011). "Apixaban in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation." New England Journal of Medicine 364(9): 806-817.
  24. Clinicaltrials.gov. NCT02239120: Dabigatran Etexilate for Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (RE-SPECT ESUS). 2015.
  25. Clinicaltrials. gov. NCT02313909: Rivaroxaban Versus Aspirin in Secondary Prevention of Stroke 
  26.      and Prevention of Systemic Embolism in Patients With Recent Embolic Stroke of Undetermined 
  27.      Source (ESUS) (NAVIGATE ESUS). 2015.

LAA-Occluder als effektive Schlaganfallprophylaxe

Thorsten Lewalter, Klaus Tiemann

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  14. Heeringa J, van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, et al. Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 949-53.
  15. Holmes DR, Reddy VY, Turi ZG, Doshi SK, Sievert H, Buchbinder M, Mullin CM, Sick P; PROTECT AF Investigators. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2009;374:534-42.
  16. Holmes D, Doshi S, Kar S, et al. Left atrial appendage closure as an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015: 65.
  17. Jais P, Haissaguerre M, Shah DC, Chouairi S, Gencel L, Honcini M, Clementy J. A focal source of atrial fibrillation treated by discrete radiofrequency ablation. Circulation 1997; 95: 572-6.
  18. Kirchhof P, Andresen D, Bosch R et al.. Short-term versus long-term antiarrhythmic drug treatment after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (Flec-SL): a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint assessment trial. The Lancet 2012; 380/9838: 238-246.
  19. Kumagai K, Nakashima H, Urata H, et al. Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on electrical and structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 2197-204.
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Orale Antikoagulation nach ischämischem Schlaganfall und Vorhofflimmern

Bernd Kallmünzer, Martin Köhrmann 

  1. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, Eikelboom J, Oldgren J, Parekh A, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. The New England journal of medicine. 2009;361(12):1139-51. Epub 2009/09/01.
  2. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, Pan G, Singer DE, Hacke W, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The New England journal of medicine. 2011;365(10):883-91. Epub 2011/08/13.
  3. Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, Lopes RD, Hylek EM, Hanna M, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. The New England journal of medicine. 2011;365(11):981-92. Epub 2011/08/30.
  4. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, Murphy SA, Wiviott SD, Halperin JL, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. The New England journal of medicine. 2013;369(22):2093-104. Epub 2013/11/21.
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  6. Diener HC, Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Wallentin L, Reilly PA, Yang S, et al. Dabigatran compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and previous transient ischaemic attack or stroke: a subgroup analysis of the RE-LY trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(12):1157-63. Epub 2010/11/10.
  7. Diener HC, Aisenberg J, Ansell J, Atar D, Breithardt G, Eikelboom J, et al. Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 2. Eur Heart J. 2016. Epub 2016/02/06.
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  10. Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, Antz M, Diener HC, Hacke W, et al. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology. 2015;17(10):1467-507. Epub 2015/09/02.
  11. Ntaios G, Papavasileiou V, Milionis H, Makaritsis K, Vemmou A, Koroboki E, et al. Embolic Strokes of Undetermined Source in the Athens Stroke Registry: An Outcome Analysis. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2015;46(8):2087-93. Epub 2015/07/15.
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  13. Brambatti M, Connolly SJ, Gold MR, Morillo CA, Capucci A, Muto C, et al. Temporal relationship between subclinical atrial fibrillation and embolic events. Circulation. 2014;129(21):2094-9. Epub 2014/03/19.
  14. Daoud EG, Glotzer TV, Wyse DG, Ezekowitz MD, Hilker C, Koehler J, et al. Temporal relationship of atrial tachyarrhythmias, cerebrovascular events, and systemic emboli based on stored device data: a subgroup analysis of TRENDS. Heart Rhythm. 2011;8(9):1416-23. Epub 2011/06/28.

Carotisstenose - welches Procedere: medikamentös, interventionell oder operativ-?

Matthias Leschke

  1. Eckstein HH, Kühnl A, Dörfler A et al.: Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge der extrakraniellen Carotisstenose. Dtsch Ärztebl 2013;110:468-76
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  3. Tendera M, Aboyans V, Bartelink M-J et al.: ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery disease. Europ Heart J 2011; 32:2851-2906
  4. Economopoulos KP, Sergentanis TN, Tsivgoulis G et al.: Carotid artery Stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: a comprehensive meta-analysis of short – term and long-term outcomes. Stroke 2011; 42:687-692
  5. Brott TG, Howard G, Roubin GS et al.: Long-term results of stenting versus endarterectomy for carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2016:doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1505215.
  6. Meschia JF, Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B et al.: Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke. Sroke 2014; doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000046
  7. Calvet D und Mas JL: Recent advances in carotid angioplasty and stenting. Int J Stroke 2016:11; 19-27
  8. Abbott A L, Paraskevas K I, Kakkos SK et al.: Systematic review of guidelines for the management asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke 2015; doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.003990
  9. Rosenfield K,  Matsumura JS, Chaturvedi  S et al. Randomized trial  of stent versus surgery of asymptomaticcarotid stenosis. N Engl J Med 2016:doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1515706
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  11. Spence J D und Naylor AR: Endarterectomy, stenting, or neither for asymptomatic carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 2016: doi.10.1056/NEJMe1600123

Vorhofflimmern und Demenz

Bernd-Dieter Gonska

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