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Diuretika – Hypokaliämie – Herzrhythmusstörung

Jörg Weirich

  1. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Bohm M, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the ma¬nagement of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arte¬rial Hypertension of the European Socie¬ty of Hypertension (ESH) and of the Eu¬ropean Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2013 Jul; 34(28): 2159–219. 
  2. Bauersachs J, Jaisser F, Toto R. Mine¬ralocorticoid receptor activation and mi¬neralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment in cardiac and renal diseases. Hypertension. 2015 Feb; (65)2: 257-63. 
  3. McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, Auricchio A, Bohm M, Dickstein K, et al. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Dia-gnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the Euro¬pean Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul; 33(14): 1787–847. 
  4. Bertocchio JP, Warnock DG, Jaisser F. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation and blockade: an emerging paradigm in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2011 May; 79(10): 1051–60. 
  5. Köckerling A, Konrad M, Seyberth HW. Heriditäre Tubulopathien mit Diuretika-ähnlichem Salzverlust. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 1998;95 A1841 – A1946.
  6. Ahmed A, Zannad F, Love TE, Tallaj J, Gheorghiade M, Ekundayo OJ, et al. A propensity-matched study of the asso¬ciation of low serum potassium levels and mortality in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2007 Jun; 28(11): 1334–43. 
  7. Zaza G. Serum potassium and arrhythmias. Europace 2009;11, 421–422.
  8. Goyal A, Spertus JA, Gosch K, Venki¬tachalam L, Jones PG, Van den Berghe G, et al. Serum potassium levels and morta¬lity in acute myocardial infarction. Jama. 2012 Jan 11; 307(2): 157–64.
  9. Goldstein SAN. K2P Potassium Channels, Mysterious and Paradoxically Exciting. PLoS ONE 2012; 7(11): e49017.
  10. Weirich J, Antoni H. Physiologie und Pathophysiologie der elementaren Herzfunktionen. In: Rosskamm H, Neumann S, Kalusche D editors. Herzkrankheiten – Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik, Therapie. 5th ed. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg 2004:23 – 56 . 
  11. MacKinnon R. K2P Potassium Channels and the Atomic Basis of Selective Ion Conduction.  Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 4265 – 4277.
  12. Ceccarini L, Masetti M, Cavalli A, Recanatini M (2012) Ion Conduction through the HERG Potassium Channel. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49017.
  13. Ma , Zhang X, Chen H. TWIK-1 Two-Pore Domain Potassium Channels change Ion Selectivity and Conduct Inward Leak Sodium Currents in Hypokalemia. Science Signaling 7, 2011; 4 (176), ra37.
  14. Antoni H, Herkel K, Fleckenstein A. Die Restitution der automatischen Erregungsbildung in kaliumgelähmten Schrittmacher-Geweben durch Adrenalin. Pflügers Arch Physiol. 1963;277:633.
  15. Weirich J, Wenzel W. Current classification of antiarrhythmic drugs. Z Kardiol 2000;89 Suppl 3: 62 – 67. 
  16. Weirich J. Frequency-dependent action of antiarrhythmic drugs: The useful concept of periodical ligand binding. Basic Res Cardiol. 1992 ; 87: 205 - 214. 
  17. Haverkampf W, Haverkampf F, Breithardt G. Medikamentenbedingte QT-Verlängerung und Torsade de pointes. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 2002;99 A1972 – A1979.
  18. Antzelevitch C, Sicouri S. Clinical relevance of cardiac arrhythmias generated by afterdepolarizations. Role of M cells in the generation of U waves, triggered activity and Torsade de pointes. JACC 1994; 23: 259 – 277.
  19. Ashcroft FM. Ion channel and disease. Channelopathies. Academic Press. London 2000.
  20. Scoote M, Williams AJ. Myocardial calcium signalling and arrhythmia pathogenesis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 322 (2004) 1286–1309.
  21. Hohnloser SH, Halperin JL, Camm AJ, Gao P, Radzik D, Connolly SJ. Interaction Between Digoxin and Dronedarone in the PALLAS Trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014;7;1019 -1025.
  22. Bers DM. Altered cardiac Ca regulation in heart failure. Physiology 2006;21 380-387.
  23. Sipido KR, Eisner D. Something old,something new. Changing views on the cellular mechanisms of heart failure. Cardiovascular Research 2005;68 167-174.

Medikamentöse Therapie der Herzinsuffizienz bei eingeschränkter Nierenfunktion: Was ist zu beachten?

Robert H.G. Schwinger

 

  1. McMurray J.J.V, Adamopoulos S, Anker St.D, Auricchio A, Böhm M, Dickstein K, Falk V, Filippatos G, Fonseca C, Gomez-Sanchez M.A, Jaarsma T, Kober L, Lip G.Y.H, Maggioni A.P, Parkhomenko A, Pieske B.M, Popescu B.A, Ronnevik P.K, Rutten F.H, Schwitter J, Seferovic P, Stepinska J, Trindade P.T, Voors A.A, Zannad F, Zeiher A. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012. European Heart Journal 2012; 33: 1787-1847.
  2. Khan NA, Ma I, Thompson CR, Humphries K, Salem DN, Samak MJ, Levin A. Kidney function and mortality among patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 244-253.
  3. Testani JM, Kimmel SE, Dries DL, Coca SG. Prognostic importance of early worsening renal function after initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with cardiac dysfunction. Circ Heart Fail. 2011; 4: 685-691.
  4. Damman K, Valente M.A.E., Voors A.A., Connor Ch.M.O., van Veldhuisen D.J., and. Hillege H.L. Renal impairment, worsening renal function, and outcome in patients with heart failure: an update meta-analysis. European Heart Journal. 2015; 35: 455-469.
  5. Ketteler M, Wanner C. Chronisches Nierenversagen – Update 2012. Dtsch Med. Wochenschr 2012; 137: 2023-2025.
  6. Shlipak MG, Matsushita K, Ärnlöv J et al. CKD Prognosis Consortium. Cystatin C versus creatinine in determining risk based on kidney function. N Engl J Med 2013; 369: 932-943.
  7. Tonelli M, Wanner C. For the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Lipid Guideline Development Work Group Members. Lipid management in chronic kidney disease: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2013 Clinical Practice Guideline. Ann Intern Med 2013; doi: 10.7326/M13-2453.
  8. Mann JF, Schmieder RE, McQueen M et al. ON-TARGET investigators. Renal outcomes with telmisartan, ramipril, or both, in people at high vascular risk (the ONTARGET study). Lancet 2008; 372: 547-553.
  9. Parving HH, Brenner BM, McMurray JJ et al. ALTITUDE Investigators. Cardiorenal end points in a trial of aliskiren for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 2204-2213.
  10. Matsumoto Y MD, Mori Y MD, Kageyama S MD, Arihara K MD, Sugiyama T MD, Ohmura H MD, et al. Spironolactone Reduces Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2014; 63: 0735-1097.
  11. Haller H, Ito S, Izzo JL Jr et al. Olmesartan for the delay or prevention of mikroalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 907-917
  12. Ronco C, McCullough P, Anker SD et al. Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the acute dialysis quality initiative. Eur Heart J 2010; 31:703-711.
  13. Dikow R, Kihm LP, Zeier M et al. Increased inifarct size in uremic rats: reduced ischemia tolerance?. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15:1530-1536.
  14. Schwenger V, Remppis B.A, Westenfeld R, Weinrich T, Brunkhorst R, Schieren G, Krumme B, Haller H, Schmieder R, Schlieper G, Frye B, Hoppe U.C, Hoyer J, Keller T, Blumenstein M, Schunkert H, Mahfoud F, Rump L.C. Dialyse- und Ultrafiltrationsverfahren bei kardio-renalem Syndrom. Empfehlungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft „Herz – Niere“ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie – Herz und Kreislaufforschung e.V. und der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nephrologie e.V.. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 2015; 139: e1-e8. 
  15. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1999 Sep 2; 341 (10): 709-17.
  16. Zannad F, Gattis Stough W, Rossignol P, Bauersachs J, McMurray JJ, Swedberg K, et al. Mineralocorticoidreceptor antagonists for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: integrating evidence into clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 2012 Nov; 33(22): 2782-95.
  17. Vardeny O, Wu DH, Desai A et al. Influence of baseline and worsening renal function on efficacy of spironolactone in patients with severe heart failure: insights from RALES (Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study). J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 60: 2082-2089.
  18. Swedberg K, Eneroth P, Kjekshus J et al. Effects of enalapril and neuroendocrine activation on prognosis in severe congestive heart failure (follow-up of the CONSENSUS trial). CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Am j Cardiol 1990; 66: 40D-45D.
  19. Felker GM, Lee KL, Bull DA et al. Diuretic strategies in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 797-805.
  20. Westenfeld R, Rump LC. Kontrastmittelinduzierte Nephropathie. Dtsch Med. Wochenschr 2013; 138: 715-715.
  21. Nieminen M.S, Altneberger J, Ben-Gal T, Böhmer A, Cominn-Colet J, Dickstein K, Edes I, Fedele F, Fonseca C, Garcia-Gonzalez M.J, Giannakoulas G,Iakobishvili Z, Jääkeläinen P, Karavidas A, Kettner J, Kivikko M, Lund L.H, Matskeplishvili S.T, Metra M, Morandi F, Oliva F, Parkhomenko A, Parissis J, Pollesello P, Pölzl G, Schwinger R.H.G, Segovia J, Seidel M, Vrtovec B, Wikström G.Repetitive use of levosimendan for treatment of chronic advanced heartfailure: Clinical evidence, practical considerations, and perspectives: an expert panel consensus. Int J Cardiol. 2014; 174(2): 360-7.
  22. Swedberg M, Komajda M, Böhm M et al. Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled study. Lancet 2010; 376: 875-885.
  23. The Digitalis Investigation Group. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 525-533. 
  24. Homma S, Thompson JLP, Pullicino PM et al. Warfarin and aspirin in patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm. N Engl J Med 2012; 32:1859-1869. 
  25. Bodey F, Hopper I, Krum H. Neprilysin inhibitors preserve renal function in heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology 2015; 179: 329-330.
  26. Levey AS, Cattran D, Friedmann A et al. Proteinuria as a surrogate outcome in Ckd: Report of a Scientific Workshop Sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 205-226.

Leitliniengerechte Hochdrucktherapie

Gerd Bönner

 

  1. Neuhauser H, Thamm M, Ellert U. Blutdruck in Deutschland 2008 – 2011. Ergebnisse der Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland (DEGS1). Bundesgesundheitsbl. Gesundheitsforsch Gesundheitsschutz 2013; 56:795-801
  2. Deutsche Hochdruckliga-Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hypertonie und Prävention und Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie: Leitlinien für das Management der arteriellen Hypertonie. ESC Pocket Guidelines; 2014; Börm Bruckmeier Verlag GmbH 
  3. The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the ESH and ESC. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens 2013; 31:1281-1357
  4. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR et al. (2003) The Seventh Report of the  Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The JNC 7 Report. JAMA 289: 2560–2572
  5. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in AdultsReport From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 2014; 311:507-520
  6. Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A, et al. 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2007; 25: 1105-1187.
  7. Mancia G, Laurent S, Agabiti-Rosei E, et al. Reappraisal of European guidelines on hypertension management: a European Society of Hypertension Task Force document. Blood Pressure 2009; 18:308-347
  8. Bönner G (2014) Diagnostik, Wertung und Behandlung: Arterielle Hypertonie. (Certified Nursing Education) CNE.fortbildung 4/14: 2-6
  9. Bönner G (2010) Arterielle Hypertonie und ernährungsmedizinische therapeutische Ansätze. In: Erbersdobler HF und Meyer AH (Hrsg.) Praxishandbuch Functional Food – diätetische und angereicherte Lebensmittel. Behr`s Verlag, Hamburg. 44. Zusatzlieferung 04/2010, Kap. 10.7: 1-31
  10. Bönner G (2012) Arterielle Hypertonie. In: Domschke W, Berger M, Hohenberger W, Meinertz T, Possinger K: Therapiehandbuch 5. Auflage, C15:1-36

Akutes Koronarsyndrom bei Niereninsuffizienz

Matthias Leschke

 

  1. Leschke M, Gradaus F, Schoebel FC et al. Koronare Herzkrankheit bei Patienten mit terminaler Niereninsuffizienz Dtsch med Wschr 1997;122:976-982.
  2. Bhandari S, Jain P. Management of acute coronary syndrome in chronic kidney disease. JAPI 2012; 60:48-51.
  3. Dohi T, Kasai T, Miyauchi K et al. Prognostic impact of chronic kidney disease on 10-year clinical outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome. J Cardiol 2012; 60:438-442.
  4. Tsai TT, Messenger JC, Brennan JM et al. Safety and efficacy of drug-eluting stents in older patients with chronic kidney disease. JACC 2011; 58:1859-69.
  5. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. New Engl J Med 2004;351:1296-1305
  6. Han JH,  Chandra A, Mulgund J et al. Chronic kidney disease in patients with  Non ST-Segment-Elevation acute coronary syndromes. 
  7. Wong JA, Goodman SG, Yan RT et al. Temporal management patterns and outcome of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in patients with kidney dysfunction. Eur Heart J 2009;30:549-57.
  8. Fox CS, Muntner P, Chen AY et al. Use of evidence-based therapies in short-term outcomes of ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Circulation 2010;121:357-365
  9. Goldenberg I, Subirana I, Boyka V et al.  Relation between renal function and outcomes in patients with Non-ST-Segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170:888-895.
  10. Windecker S, Kolh P, Alfonso F et al. 2014 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Europ Heart J doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu 278
  11. James S, Budaj A, Aylward P et al. Ticagrelor vs.Clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes in relation to renal function: results from the Platelet inhibition and Patients Outcome (PLATO) trial. Circulation 2010; 122: 1056-67.

 

 

Antikoagulation mit Coumadinen und Direkten oralen Antikoagulantien bei Niereninsuffizienz – Was ist zu beachten?

Bernd-Dieter Gonska

 

  1. Craig TJ et al. 2014AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for theManagement of PatientsWithAtrial Fibrillation: Executive SummaryAReport of theAmerican College of Cardiology/AmericanHeartAssociation Task Force on PracticeGuidelines and theHeart RhythmSociety JAmColl Cardiol. 2014;64(21):2246-2280
  2. Steinberg BAet al.Higher risk of death and stroke in patientswith persistent vs. paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results fromthe ROCKET-AF Trial EurHeart J (2014) First published online: September 10, 2014
  3. LipGet al. Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolismin atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation Chest 2010;137:263-72
  4. Pisters R. et al.Anovel userfriendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess 1-year risk ofmajor bleeding in patientswith atrial fibrillation: the EuroHeart Survey. Chest 2010Nov;138(5):1093-100
  5. Friberg L. et al. Evaluation of risk stratification schemes for ischaemic stroke and bleeding in 182 678 patientswith atrial fibrillation: the SwedishAtrial Fibrillation cohort study. EurHeart J. 2012 Jun;33(12):1500-10
  6. Ruff CT et al. Comparison of the efficacy andsafetyofneworal anticoagulantswithwarfarin in patientswith atrial fibrillation: ameta-analysis of randomized trials. Lancet 2014;383,955-962
  7. Conolly SJ et al.Dabigatran versus Warfarin in PatientswithAtrial Fibrillation (RE-LY).NEngl JMed 2009; 361:1139-1151
  8. Manesh RP et al. Rivaroxaban versusWarfarininNonvalvularAtrial Fibrillation (ROCKET-AF).NEngl JMed 2011; 365:883-891
  9. Granger CB et al.Apixaban versus Warfarin in PatientswithAtrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE).NEngl JMed 2011; 365:981-992
  10. Giugliano RP et al. Edoxaban versusWarfarin in PatientswithAtrial Fibrillation (ENGAGE-AF TIMI 48).NEngl JMed 2013; 369:2093-2104
  11. FDAAnalyse 2014: Pradaxa (dabigatran): DrugSafetyCommunication- Lower Risk for Stroke andDeath, butHigher Risk forGI Bleeding Compared toWarfarin
  12. Bakhru SHet al.Use of PER977 to Reverse theAnticoagulant Effect of Edoxaban. NEngl JMed 2014; 371:2141-2142
  13. Glund S et al.Abstract 17765:A SpecificAntidote forDabigatran: Immediate, Complete and Sustained Reversal ofDabigatran InducedAnticoagulation inHealthyMale Volunteers. Circulation. 2013; 128:A17765
  14. Eerenberg ES et al. Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects. Circulation. 2011Oct 4;124(14):1573-9
  15. Healey JS et al. Effect of age and renal function on the risks of stroke and major bleedingwith dabigatran compared towarfarin: an analysis fromthe RELY study. JAmColl Cardiol. 2010;55(10A):A4.E37
  16. Published by Portola Pharmaceuticals (2014):AndexanetAlfa aNovelAntidote totheAnticoagulant Effectsof fXA Inhibitors – Rivaroxaban

Neue Erkenntnisse und therapeutische Ansätze – ein Update

Harry W. Hahmann

 

  1. Hahmann HW, Was bedeutet erhöhtes Lipoprotein (a) für das kardiovaskuläre Risiko? Herzmedizin 2009; 26(39):128-134.
  2. Gabautz JW, Ghanem KI, Guevara J, Nava ML, Patsch ML, Morisett JD (1990) Polymorphic forms of human apolipoprotein(a): inheritance and relationship of their molecular weights to plasma levels of lipoprotein(a). J Lipid Res 1990; 31:603-613.
  3. Nordestgaard M. Chapman J, Ray K, Bore´n J, et al. for the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panelet al. Lipoprotein (a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status. EurHeartJ 2010 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq386.
  4. Krempler F, Kostner GM, Bolzano K, Sandhofer F (1980) Turnover of lipoprotein(a) in man. J Clin Invest 65:1483-1490.
  5. Utermann G, Menzel HJ, Kraft HG, Duga HC, Kemmler HG, Seitz C (1987) Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes. Inheritance and relation to Lp(a)-lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. J Clin Invest 80:458-465.
  6. Clarke R, Peden J, Hopewell JC et al. for the PROCARDIS Consortium. Genetic Variants Associated with Lp (a) Lipoprotein Level and Coronary Disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:2518-28.
  7. Voight BF, Peloso GM, Orho-Melander, Schmidt RF et al. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study, Lancet 2012; doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60312-2.
  8. Nordestgaard M. Chapman J, Ray K, Bore´n J, et al. for the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panelet al. Lipoprotein (a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status. EurHeartJ 2010 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq386.
  9. Hahmann H. W., D. Schätzer-Klotz, T. Bunte, D. Becker, and H. J. Schieffer: The significance of high levels of lipoprotein (a) compared with established risk factors in premature coronary artery disease - Differences between men and women. Atherosclerosis 1999;144: 221-228.
  10. M Seed, F Hoppichler, D Reaveley, S McCarthy, GR Thompson, E Boerwinkle, and G Utermann. Relation of serum lipoprotein(a) concentration and apolipoprotein(a) phenotype to coronary heart disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. NEJM 1990; 322:1494-1499.
  11. Iris Shai1,2,7*, Eric B. Rimm1,2,3, Susan E. Hankinson2,3, Carolyn Cannuscio4, Gary Curhan3, JoAnn E. Manson2,3,5, Nader Rifai6, Meir J. Stampfer1,2,3, and Jing Ma2,3. Lipoprotein (a) and coronary heart disease among women: beyond a cholesterol carrier? European Heart Journal (2005) 26, 1633–1639.
  12. Kamstrup PR, Benn M, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Circulation. 2008; 117(2):176-184.
  13. Angelo M. Scanu, MD,a,b,* and Ravi Bamba, BSa  Niacin and Lipoprotein(a): Facts, Uncertainties, and Clinical Considerations Am J Cardiol 2008;101[suppl]:44B–47B.
  14. Klingel R, Lipidapherese bei isolierter Lipoprotein(a)-Erhöhung mit progredienter Gefäßerkrankung, Herzmedizin 2009; 26(39):136-139.
  15. Leebmann J, Roeseler E, Julius U, Heigl F, Spitthoever R, Heutling D, Breitenberger P, Maerz W, Lehmacher W, Heibges A, Klingel R, for the Pro(a)LiFe-Study Group. Lipoprotein Apheresis in Patients with Maximally Tolerated Lipid Lowering Therapy, Lp(a)-Hyperlipoproteinemia and Progressive Cardiovascular Disease: Prospective Observational Multicenter Study. Circulation.published online 09r 20, 2013 http: //circ.ahajournals.org/ content/early/2013/09/20/CIRCULATIONAHA. 113.002432.
  16. Christopher P. Cannon, Bertrand Cariou, Dirk Blom, James M. McKenney, Christelle Lorenzato5 Robert Pordy, Umesh Chaudhari7 and Helen M. Colhoun, for the ODYSSEY COMBO II Investigators. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in high cardiovascular risk patients with inadequately controlled hypercholesterolaemia on maximally tolerated doses of statins: the ODYSSEY COMBO II randomized controlled trial. EuropHeartJ published February 25, 2015¸doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv028.
  17. The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). European Heart Journal (2012) 33, 1635–1701.