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Literatur:

Neuerungen der ERC-Leitlinien 2015 für die kardio-pulmonale Reanimation unter besonderer Berücksichtigung kardiologischer Gesichtspunkte 
Frank Spillmann, Gunther Schmidt, Burkert Pieske und Carsten Tschöpe 

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  2. Grasner JT, Herlitz J, Koster RW, Rosell-Ortiz F, Stamatakis L, Bossaert L: Quality management in resuscitation--towards a European cardiac arrest registry (EuReCa). Resuscitation 2011; 82:989-994
  3. Grasner JT, Bossaert L: Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2013; 27:293-306
  4. Weisfeldt ML, Sitlani CM, Ornato JP, Rea T, Aufderheide TP, Davis D, Dreyer J, Hess EP, Jui J, Maloney J, et al.: Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system: evaluation in the resuscitation outcomes consortium population of 21 million. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55:1713-1720
  5. Berdowski J, Blom MT, Bardai A, Tan HL, Tijssen JG, Koster RW: Impact of onsite or dispatched automated external defibrillator use on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 2011; 124:2225-2232
  6. Rea TD, Pearce RM, Raghunathan TE, Lemaitre RN, Sotoodehnia N, Jouven X, Siscovick DS: Incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93:1455-1460
  7. Ringh M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J, Rosenqvist M, Svensson L: Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2009; 17:18
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  9. Wissenberg M, Lippert FK, Folke F, Weeke P, Hansen CM, Christensen EF, Jans H, Hansen PA, Lang-Jensen T, Olesen JB, et al.: Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 2013; 310:1377-1384
  10. Blom MT, Beesems SG, Homma PC, Zijlstra JA, Hulleman M, van Hoeijen DA, Bardai A, Tijssen JG, Tan HL, Koster RW: Improved survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and use of automated external defibrillators. Circulation 2014; 130:1868-1875
  11. Bahr J, Klingler H, Panzer W, Rode H, Kettler D: Skills of lay people in checking the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 1997; 35:23-26
  12. Berdowski J, Beekhuis F, Zwinderman AH, Tijssen JG, Koster RW: Importance of the first link: description and recognition of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in an emergency call. Circulation 2009; 119:2096-2102
  13. Vaillancourt C, Verma A, Trickett J, Crete D, Beaudoin T, Nesbitt L, Wells GA, Stiell IG: Evaluating the effectiveness of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Acad Emerg Med 2007; 14:877-883
  14. Hallstrom AP, Cobb LA, Johnson E, Copass MK: Dispatcher assisted CPR: implementation and potential benefit. A 12-year study. Resuscitation 2003; 57:123-129
  15. Yeung J, Okamoto D, Soar J, Perkins GD: AED training and its impact on skill acquisition, retention and performance--a systematic review of alternative training methods. Resuscitation 2011; 82:657-664
  16. Sandroni C, Nolan J, Cavallaro F, Antonelli M: In-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, prognosis and possible measures to improve survival. Intensive Care Med 2007; 33:237-245
  17. Wik L, Olsen JA, Persse D, Sterz F, Lozano M, Jr., Brouwer MA, Westfall M, Souders CM, Malzer R, van Grunsven PM, et al.: Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial. Resuscitation 2014; 85:741-748
  18. Langhelle A, Tyvold SS, Lexow K, Hapnes SA, Sunde K, Steen PA: In-hospital factors associated with improved outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A comparison between four regions in Norway. Resuscitation 2003; 56:247-263
  19. Goodman SG, Huang W, Yan AT, Budaj A, Kennelly BM, Gore JM, Fox KA, Goldberg RJ, Anderson FA, Jr., Expanded Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events I: The expanded Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events: baseline characteristics, management practices, and hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Am Heart J 2009; 158:193-201 e191-195
  20. Keeley EC, Boura JA, Grines CL: Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet 2003; 361:13-20
  21. Hollenbeck RD, McPherson JA, Mooney MR, Unger BT, Patel NC, McMullan PW, Jr., Hsu CH, Seder DB, Kern KB: Early cardiac catheterization is associated with improved survival in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest without STEMI. Resuscitation 2014; 85:88-95
  22. Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann FJ, Ferenc M, Olbrich HG, Hausleiter J, Richardt G, Hennersdorf M, Empen K, Fuernau G, et al.: Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:1287-1296
  23. Brown JP, Clark AM, Dalal H, Welch K, Taylor RS: Patient education in the management of coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011:CD008895
  24. Cowan MJ, Pike KC, Budzynski HK: Psychosocial nursing therapy following sudden cardiac arrest: impact on two-year survival. Nurs Res 2001; 50:68-76

Arrhythmien und plötzlicher Herztod
N. Sawan, P. Münkler, C. Eitel, H. Thiele, R. R. Tilz

  1. Priori SG et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European heart journal. 2015 Nov 1;36(41):2793-867. doi: 10.1093
  2. Jais P, Maury P, Khairy P et al., Elimination of local abnormal ventricular activities: a new end point for substrate modification in patients with scar-related ventricular tachycardia, Circulation 2012, 125(18):2184-2196.
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  5. Kuck KH, Schaumann A, Eckardt L et al., Catheter ablation of stable ventricular tachykardia before defibrillator implantation in patients with coronary heart disease (VTACH): a multicentre randomised controlled trial, Lancet 2010,375: 31-40.
  6. Reddy VY, Reynolds MR, Neuzil P et al., Prophylactic Catheter Ablation for the Prevention of Defibrillator Therapy, New England Journal of Medicine 2007, 357:2657-2665.
  7. Di Biase L, Santangeli P, Burkhardt DJ et al., Endo-Epicardial Homogenization of the Scar Versus Limited Substrate Ablation for the Treatment of Electrical Storms in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathie, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2012, 60:132-141
  8. Valles E, Bazan V, Marchlinski FE, ECG Criteria to Identify Epicaridal Ventricular Tachykardia in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathie, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 2010, 3:63-71.
  9. Tilz R et al. Successful epicardial ablation of electrical storms due to recurrent ventricular fibrillation triggered by premature ventricular contractions. Heart Rhythm. 2014;11(1):146–149.
  10. Bourke T et al. Neuraxial modulation for refractory ventricular arrhythmias: value of thoracic epidural anesthesia and surgical left cardiac sympathetic denervation. Circulation. 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2255-62. 
  11. Hofferberth S et al. Left thoracoscopic sympathectomy for cardiac denervation in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2014 Jan;147(1):404-9.
  12. ZJ Zheng, et al: Sudden Cardiac Death in the United States, 1989 to 1998. In: Circulation. 104, Nr. 18, 2001, S. 2158–2163.
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  14. Maron BJ. Sudden death in young athletes. Neu England Journal of Medicine 2003; 349:1064–1075.

Management des Rechtsherzversagens bei akuter Lungenembolie
Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Mareike Lankeit 

  1. Cohen AT, Agnelli G, Anderson FA, Arcelus JI, Bergqvist D, Brecht JG, Greer IA, Heit JA, Hutchinson JL, Kakkar AK, Mottier D, Oger E, Samama MM, Spannagl M. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Europe. The number of VTE events and associated morbidity and mortality. Thromb Haemost 2007; 98:756-764.
  2. Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G, Danchin N, Fitzmaurice D, Galiè N, Gibbs JS, Huisman MV, Humbert M, Kucher N, Lang I, Lankeit M, Lekakis J, Maack C, Mayer E, Meneveau N, Perrier A, Pruszczyk P, Rasmussen LH, Schindler TH, Svitil P, Vonk Noordegraaf A, Zamorano JL, Zompatori M; Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). 2014 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J 2014; 35:3033-69, 3069a-3069k.
  3. Hach-Wunderle V. S2-Leitlinie: Diagnostik und Therapie der Venenthrombose und der Lungenembolie. Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF). Register Nr. 065/002.
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  5. Harjola VP, Mebazaa A, Čelutkienė J, Bettex D, Bueno H, Chioncel O, Crespo-Leiro MG, Falk V, Filippatos G, Gibbs S, Leite-Moreira A, Lassus J, Masip J, Mueller C, Mullens W, Naeije R, Nordegraaf AV, Parissis J, Riley JP, Ristic A, Rosano G, Rudiger A, Ruschitzka F, Seferovic P, Sztrymf B, Vieillard-Baron A, Yilmaz MB, Konstantinides S. Contemporary management of acute right ventricular failure: a statement from the Heart Failure Association and the Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation and Right Ventricular Function of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 2016; 18:226-241.
  6. Overgaard CB, Dzavík V. Inotropes and vasopressors: review of physiology and clinical use in cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008; 118:1047-1056.
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  9. Ventetuolo CE, Klinger JR. Management of acute right ventricular failure in the intensive care unit. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2014; 11:811-22.
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  11. Stein PD, Matta F. Thrombolytic therapy in unstable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: saves lives but underused. Am J Med 2012; 125:465-470.
  12. Marti C, John G, Konstantinides S, Combescure C, Sanchez O, Lankeit M, Meyer G, Perrier A. Systemic thrombolytic therapy for acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2015; 36:605-614.
  13. Lankeit M, Konstantinides S. Thrombolyse bei akuter Lungenembolie – Risikostratifizierung, risikoadaptierte Diagnostik und Therapie. Klinikarzt 2014; 433 (S1): 6-11.
  14. Meyer G, Vicaut E, Danays T, Agnelli G, Becattini C, Beyer-Westendorf J, Bluhmki E, Bouvaist H, Brenner B, Couturaud F, Dellas C, Empen K, Franca A, Galiè N, Geibel A, Goldhaber SZ, Jimenez D, Kozak M, Kupatt C, Kucher N, Lang IM, Lankeit M, Meneveau N, Pacouret G, Palazzini M, Petris A, Pruszczyk P, Rugolotto M, Salvi A, Schellong S, Sebbane M, Sobkowicz B, Stefanovic BS, Thiele H, Torbicki A, Verschuren F, Konstantinides SV; PEITHO Investigators. Fibrinolysis for patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. N Engl J Med 2014; 370:1402-1411.
  15. Sharifi M, Bay C, Skrocki L, Rahimi F, Mehdipour M; “MOPETT” Investigators. Moderate pulmonary embolism treated with thrombolysis (from the "MOPETT" Trial). Am J Cardiol 2013; 111:273-277.
  16. Zhang Z, Zhai ZG, Liang LR, Liu FF, Yang YH, Wang C. Lower dosage of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thromb Res 2014; 133:357-363.
  17. Kuo WT, Gould MK, Louie JD, Rosenberg JK, Sze DY, Hofmann LV. Catheterdirected therapy for the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: systematic review and meta-analysis of modern techniques. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2009; 20:1431–1440.
  18. Kucher N, Boekstegers P, Müller OJ, Kupatt C, Beyer-Westendorf J, Heitzer T, Tebbe U, Horstkotte J, Müller R, Blessing E, Greif M, Lange P, Hoffmann RT, Werth S, Barmeyer A, Härtel D, Grünwald H, Empen K, Baumgartner I. Randomized, controlled trial of ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Circulation 2014; 129:479-486.
  19. Piazza G, Hohlfelder B, Jaff MR, Ouriel K, Engelhardt TC, Sterling KM, Jones NJ, Gurley JC, Bhatheja R, Kennedy RJ, Goswami N, Natarajan K, Rundback J, Sadiq IR, Liu SK, Bhalla N, Raja ML, Weinstock BS, Cynamon J, Elmasri FF, Garcia MJ, Kumar M, Ayerdi J, Soukas P, Kuo W, Liu PY, Goldhaber SZ; SEATTLE II Investigators. A Prospective, Single-Arm, Multicenter Trial of Ultrasound-Facilitated, Catheter-Directed, Low-Dose Fibrinolysis for Acute Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: The SEATTLE II Study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015; 8:1382-92. 

Chirurgische Therapie der akuten Aortendissektion Typ Stanford A
Christoph T. Starck; Jörg Kempfert; Robert Hammerschmidt, Volkmar Falk

  1. Golledge J, Eagle KA. Acute aortic dissection. The Lancet 2008;372:55–66. 
  2. Melvinsdottir IH, Lund SH, Agnarsson BA, Sigvaldason K, Gudbjartsson T, Geirsson A. The incidence and mortality of acute thoracic aortic dissection: results from a whole nation study. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2016;:ezw235–ezw237. 
  3. Howard DPJ, Banerjee A, Fairhead JF, Perkins J, Silver LE, Rothwell PM, on behalf of the Oxford Vascular Study. Population-Based Study of Incidence and Outcome of Acute Aortic Dissection and Premorbid Risk Factor Control: 10-Year Results From the Oxford Vascular Study. Circulation American Heart Association Journals; 2013;127:2031–2037. 
  4. Vilacosta I, San Roman JA. Acute aortic syndrome. Heart 2001;85:365–368. 
  5. Wooley CF, Sparks EH, Boudoulas H. Aortic pain. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1998;40:563–589. 
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  7. Eichstädt H, Kübler W, Hetzer R, Sommerfeld R, Sommerfeld J, Siniawski H, Lehmkuhl L, Störk T. Operationszeitpunkt bei thorakalen Aortenaneurysmen und bei Dissektionen. Herzmedizin 2007;24:1–11. 
  8. Pape LA, Awais M, Woznicki EM, Suzuki T, Trimarchi S, Evangelista A, Myrmel T, Larsen M, Harris KM, Greason K, Di Eusanio M, Bossone E, Montgomery DG, Eagle KA, Nienaber CA, Isselbacher EM, O'Gara P. Presentation, Diagnosis, and Outcomes of Acute Aortic Dissection. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2015;66: 350–358. 
  9. MD RG, MD RM. Evaluation and Management of Chest Pain in the Elderly. Emergency Medicine Clinics of NA Elsevier Inc; 2016; 34:523–542. 
  10. Sommer T, Fehske W, Holzknecht N, Smekal AV, Keller E, Lutterbey G, Kreft B, Kuhl C, Gieseke J, Abu-Ramadan D, Schild H. Aortic dissection: a comparative study of diagnosis with spiral CT, multiplanar transesophageal echocardiography, and MR imaging. Radiology 1996;199: 347–352. 
  11. Johnson TRC, Nikolaou K, Wintersperger BJ, Knez A, Boekstegers P, Reiser MF, Becker CR. ECG-Gated 64-MDCT Angiography in the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Chest Pain. American Journal of Roentgenology 2007;188:76–82. 
  12. Hussain ST, Svensson LG. Surgical techniques in type A dissection. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2016;5:233–235. 
  13. Lu S, Yang S, Lai H, Zheng J, Hong T, Sun X, Wang C. Open aortic arch reconstruction for acute type a aortic dissection: a single-center experience with 267 consecutive patients. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery; 2016;:1–8. 
  14. Hata M, Orime Y, Wakui S, Nakamura T, Hinoura R, Akiyama K. Efficacy of limited proximal arch replacement for type A acute aortic dissection with critical complications. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016:1–2. 
  15. Kim JB, Chung CH, Moon DH, Ha GJ, Lee TY, Jung SH, Choo SJ, Lee JW. Total arch repair versus hemiarch repair in the management of acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2011. 
  16. Castrovinci S, Pacini D, Di Marco L, Berretta P, Cefarelli M, Murana G, Alfonsi J, Pantaleo A, Leone A, Di Eusanio M, Di Bartolomeo R. Surgical management of aortic root in type A acute aortic dissection: a propensity-score analysis. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2016;50:223–229. 
  17. Leontyev S, Borger MA, Etz CD, Moz M, Seeburger J, Bakhtiary F, Misfeld M, Mohr FW. Experience with the conventional and frozen elephant trunk techniques: a single-centre study. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2013;44: 1076–1083. 
  18. Tsagakis K, Pacini D, Di Bartolomeo R, Gorlitzer M, Weiss G, Grabenwoger M, Mestres CA, Benedik J, Cerny S, Jakob H. Multicenter early experience with extended aortic repair in acute aortic dissection: Is simultaneous descending stent grafting justified? The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2010;140: S116–S120. 
  19. MBBS MS, MD TK, MD EB, MD FF, MD JU, MD FAA, MD DB, RN HK, MD AH, MD AM. Total aortic arch replacement with a novel 4-branched frozen elephant trunk prosthesis: Single-center results of the first 100 patients. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Elsevier Inc; 2016;152: 148–159.e1. 
  20. Poon SS, Theologou T, Harrington D, Kuduvalli M, Oo A, Field M. Systematic Review Hemiarch versus total aortic arch replacement in acute type A dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2016; 5:156–173. 
  21. Schoenrath F, Laber R, Maralushaj M, Henzi D, Caliskan E, Seifert B, Bettex D, Starck C, Czerny M, Falk V. Survival, Neurologic Injury, and Kidney Function after Surgery for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection. Thorac cardiovasc Surg 2016; 64:100–107. 
  22. Boening A, Karck M, Conzelmann LO, Easo J, Krüger T, Rylski B, Weigang E. German Registry for Acute Aortic Dissection Type A: Structure, Results, and Future Perspectives. Thorac cardiovasc Surg 2016:1–8. 
  23. Hetzer R, Pasic M, Eichstädt H. Chirurgie der Aorta ascendens und des Aortenbogens. Herzmedizin Herzmedizin; 2007; 24:1–7. 
  24. Leshnower BG, Thourani VH, Halkos ME, Sarin EL, Keeling WB, Lamias MJ, Guyton RA, Chen EP. Moderate Versus Deep Hypothermia With Unilateral Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion for Acute Type A Dissection. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery Elsevier; 2015;100: 1563–1569. 
  25. Fukunaga N, Koyama T. Evolution of diagnosis and clinical outcomes in acute aortic dissection: data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. J Thorac Dis 2016;8: E625–E627. 
  26. Andersen ND, Benrashid E, Ross AK, Pickett LC, SMITH PK, Daneshmand MA, SCHRODER JN, Gaca JG, Hughes GC. The utility of the aortic dissection team: outcomes and insights after a decade of experience. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2016;5:194–201. 
  27. Merlo AE, Chauhan D, Pettit C, Hong KN, Saunders CR, Chen C, Russo MJ. Outcomes following emergent open repair for thoracic aortic dissection are improved at higher volume centers in direct admissions and transfers. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery; 2016:1–8. 

Kardiale Notfälle für die Herzchirurgie:Ventrikelruptur, Papillarmuskelabriss, Perikardtamponade
Herbert O. Vetter

  1. Cooley DA, Belmonte BA, Zeis LB, Schnur S. Surgical repair of ruptured interventricular septum following acute myocardial infarction. Surgery 1957; 41:930-937.
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  3. Jeppsson A, Liden H, Hartford M, Radegran K. Surgical repair of post infarction ventricular septal defects: a national experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2005; 27:216-221
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  5. Rankin JS, Hickey MSJ, Smith LR, BeBruijn NP, Sheikh KH, Sabiston DS Jr. Current concepts in the pathogenesis and treatment of ischemis mitral regurgitation. In: Vetter HO, Hetzer R, Schmutzler H (eds) Ischemic mitral incompetence. Steinkopff, Springer 1991:157-178.
  6. Schroeter T, Lehmann S, Misfeld M, Borger M, Subramanian S, Mohr FW, Bakthiary F. Clinical outcome after mitral valve surgery due to ischemic papillary muscle rupture. Ann Thorac Surg 2013; 95:820-824.