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Statine in der Primärprävention: Evidenz? LDL-Zielwerte?

Florian Custodis, Ulrich Laufs

  1. Taylor F, Huffman MD, Macedo AF, Moore TH, Burke M, Davey Smith G, Ward K, Ebrahim S. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013;1:CD004816
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  3. Shalev V, Chodick G, Silber H, Kokia E, Jan J, Heymann AD. Continuation of statin treatment and all-cause mortality: A population-based cohort study. Archives of internal medicine. 2009;169:260–268
  4. European Association for Cardiovascular P, Rehabilitation, Reiner Z, Catapano AL, De Backer G, Graham I, Taskinen MR, Wiklund O, Agewall S, Alegria E, Chapman MJ, Durrington P, Erdine S, Halcox J, Hobbs R, Kjekshus J, Filardi PP, Riccardi G, Storey RF, Wood D, Guidelines ESCCfP, Committees. Esc/eas guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: The task force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the european society of cardiology (esc) and the european atherosclerosis society (eas). European heart journal. 2011;32:1769–1818
  5. Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Bairey Merz CN, Blum CB, Eckel RH, Goldberg AC, Gordon D, Levy D, Lloyd-Jones DM, McBride P, Schwartz JS, Shero ST, Smith SC, Jr., Watson K, Wilson PW, Eddleman KM, Jarrett NM, LaBresh K, Nevo L, Wnek J, Anderson JL, Halperin JL, Albert NM, Bozkurt B, Brindis RG, Curtis LH, DeMets D, Hochman JS, Kovacs RJ, Ohman EM, Pressler SJ, Sellke FW, Shen WK, Smith SC, Jr., Tomaselli GF, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice G. 2013 acc/aha guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: A report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129:S1–45
  6. Klose G, Beil FU, Dieplinger H, von Eckardstein A, Foger B, Gouni-Berthold I, Koenig W, Kostner GM, Landmesser U, Laufs U, Leistikow F, Marz W, Merkel M, Muller-Wieland D, Noll G, Parhofer KG, Paulweber B, Riesen W, Schaefer JR, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Steinmetz A, Toplak H, Wanner C, Windler E. Neue aha- und acc-leitlinie zur risikoreduktion von herz-kreislauf-erkrankungen durch cholesterinsenkung. Stellungnahme der d•a•ch-gesellschaft prävention von herz-kreislauf-erkrankungen e. V., der österreichischen atherosklerose gesellschaft und der arbeitsgruppe lipide und atherosklerose (agla) der schweizer gesellschaft für kardiologie. Der Internist. 2014;55:601–606
  7. Gohlke H, Koenig W, Schunkert H, Marx N, Hamm C. Stellungnahme der deutschen gesellschaft für kardiologie zu den neuen us-leitlinien zur verminderung des atheroskleroserisikos mittels lipidsenkender therapie. Kardiologe. 2014;8:120–124
  8. Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I. Statins and risk of incident diabetes: A collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials. Lancet. 2010;375:735–742
  9. Waters DD, Ho JE, DeMicco DA, Breazna A, Arsenault BJ, Wun CC, Kastelein JJ, Colhoun H, Barter P. Predictors of new-onset diabetes in patients treated with atorvastatin: Results from 3 large randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1535–1545
  10. Preiss D, Seshasai SR, Welsh P, Murphy SA, Ho JE, Waters DD, DeMicco DA, Barter P, Cannon CP, Sabatine MS, Braunwald E, Kastelein JJ, de Lemos JA, Blazing MA, Pedersen TR, Tikkanen MJ, Sattar N, Ray KK. Risk of incident diabetes with intensive-dose compared with moderate-dose statin therapy: A meta-analysis. Jama. 2011;305:2556–2564
  11. Ridker PM, Pradhan A, MacFadyen JG, Libby P, Glynn RJ. Cardiovascular benefits and diabetes risks of statin therapy in primary prevention: An analysis from the jupiter trial. Lancet. 2012;380:565–571
  12. Besseling J, van Capelleveen J, Kastelein JJ, Hovingh GK. Ldl cholesterol goals in high-risk patients: How low do we go and how do we get there? Drugs. 2013;73:293–301

Digitalis bei systolischer Herzinsuffizienz

Udo Bavendiek, Johann Bauersachs

  1. Smith TW, Antman EM, Friedman PL, Blatt CM, Marsh JD (1984) Digitalis glycosides: mechanisms and manifestations of toxicity. Part I. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 26: 413–458.
  2. Smith TW, Antman EM, Friedman PL, Blatt CM, Marsh JD (1984) Digitalis glycosides: mechanisms and manifestations of toxicity. Part II. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 26: 495–540.
  3. Smith TW, Antman EM, Friedman PL, Blatt CM, Marsh JD (1984) Digitalis glycosides: mechanisms and manifestations of toxicity. Part III. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 27: 21–56.
  4. Gheorghiade M, Hall V, Lakier JB, Goldstein S (1989) Comparative hemodynamic and neurohormonal effects of intravenous captopril and digoxin and their combinations in patients with severe heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 13: 134–142.
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  6. Gheorghiade M, Ferguson D (1991) Digoxin. A neurohormonal modulator in heart failure? Circulation 84: 2181–2186.
  7. Belz GG, Breithaupt-Grogler K, Osowski U (2001) Treatment of congestive heart failure--current status of use of digitoxin. Eur J Clin Invest 31 Suppl 2: 10–17.
  8. Martindale (2009) The complete drug reference.
  9. Eichhorn EJ, Gheorghiade M (2002) Digoxin. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 44: 251–266.
  10. Uretsky BF, Young JB, Shahidi FE, Yellen LG, Harrison MC, et al. (1993) Randomized study assessing the effect of digoxin withdrawal in patients with mild to moderate chronic congestive heart failure: results of the PROVED trial. PROVED Investigative Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 22: 955–962.
  11. Packer M, Gheorghiade M, Young JB, Costantini PJ, Adams KF, et al. (1993) Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. RADIANCE Study. N Engl J Med 329: 1–7.
  12. (1997) The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The Digitalis Investigation Group. N Engl J Med 336: 525–533.
  13. Rathore SS, Curtis JP, Wang Y, Bristow MR, Krumholz HM (2003) Association of serum digoxin concentration and outcomes in patients with heart failure. JAMA 289: 871–878.
  14. Ahmed A, Rich MW, Love TE, Lloyd-Jones DM, Aban IB, et al. (2006) Digoxin and reduction in mortality and hospitalization in heart failure: a comprehensive post hoc analysis of the DIG trial. Eur Heart J 27: 178–186.
  15. van Veldhuisen DJ, Van Gelder IC, Ahmed A, Gheorghiade M (2013) Digoxin for patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: paradise lost or not? Eur Heart J 34: 1468–1470.
  16. Gheorghiade M, Patel K, Filippatos G, Anker SD, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. (2013) Effect of oral digoxin in high-risk heart failure patients: a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the DIG trial. Eur J Heart Fail 15: 551–559.
  17. Gheorghiade M, van Veldhuisen DJ, Colucci WS (2006) Contemporary use of digoxin in the management of cardiovascular disorders. Circulation 113: 2556–2564.
  18. Whitbeck MG, Charnigo RJ, Khairy P, Ziada K, Bailey AL, et al. (2013) Increased mortality among patients taking digoxin--analysis from the AFFIRM study. Eur Heart J 34: 1481–1488.
  19. Gheorghiade M, Fonarow GC, van Veldhuisen DJ, Cleland JG, Butler J, et al. (2013) Lack of evidence of increased mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation taking digoxin: findings from post hoc propensity-matched analysis of the AFFIRM trial. Eur Heart J 34: 1489–1497.
  20. Turakhia MP, Santangeli P, Winkelmayer WC, Xu X, Ullal AJ, et al. (2014) Increased Mortality Associated With Digoxin in Contemporary Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the TREAT-AF Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 64: 660–668.
  21. Patel NJ, Hoosien M, Deshmukh A, Badheka AO, Grover PM, et al. (2013) Digoxin significantly improves all-cause mortality in atrial fibrillation patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function. Int J Cardiol 169: e84–86.
  22. Ambrosy AP, Butler J, Ahmed A, Vaduganathan M, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. (2014) The use of digoxin in patients with worsening chronic heart failure: reconsidering an old drug to reduce hospital admissions. J Am Coll Cardiol 63: 1823–1832.
  23. Castagno D, Petrie MC, Claggett B, McMurray J (2012) Should we SHIFT our thinking about digoxin? Observations on ivabradine and heart rate reduction in heart failure. Eur Heart J 33: 1137–1141.
  24. McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD, Auricchio A, Bohm M, et al. (2012) ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur J Heart Fail 14: 803–869.

Colchicin – Ein Klassiker als Innovation

Bernhard Maisch

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  17. Imazio M, Brucato A, Cemin R, Ferrua S, Maggiolini S, Begaraj F, Demarie D, Forno D, Ferrro S, Maestroni S, Belli R, Trinchero R, Spodick DH, Adler Y  for the ICAP Investigators. A randomized trial of colchicine for acute pericarditis. N Engl J Med  2013; 369: 1522–1528.
  18. Imazio M, Bobbio M, Cecchi E, Demarie D, Demichelis B, Pomari F, Moratti M, Gaschino G, Giammaria M, Ghisio A, Belli R, Trinchero R.  Colchicine as first-choice therapy for recurrent pericarditis.  Results of the Core (COlchicine for Recurrent pericarditis) Trial.  Arch Intern Med 2005;163:1987–1991.
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  21. Imazio M, Brucato A, Cemin R, Ferrua S, Belli R, Maestroni S, Trinchero R, Spodick DH, Adler Y, on behalf of the CORP(COlchicine for Recurrent Pericarditis) investigators. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:409–414.
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  32. Imazio M, Belli R, Brucato A, Ferrazzi P, Patrini D, Martinelli L, Polizzi V, Cemin R, Leggieri A, Caforio AL, Finkelstein Y, Hoit B, Maisch B, Mayosi BM, Oh JK, Ristic AD, Seferovic P, Spodick DH, Adler Y.  Rationale and design of the COlchicine for Prevention of the Post-pericardiotomy Syndrome and Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (COPPS-2 trial): a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on the use of colchicine for the primary prevention of the postpericardiotomy syndrome, postoperative effusions, and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J. 2013;166(1):13–19. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.03.025 . Epub 2013 May 6. Review.
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  41. Maisch B, Seferovic PM, Ristic AD, Erbel R, Rienmueller R, Adler Y, Tomkowski WZ, Thiene G, Yacoub MH. Task Force on the diagnosis management of pericardial diseases of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of pericardial diseases. Eur Heart J 2004;25:587–610.
  42. Maisch B, Rupp H, Risti? AD, Pankuweit S  Pericardioscopy and epi- and pericardial biopsy – a new window to the heart improving etiological diagnoses and permitting targeted intrapericardial therapy. Heart Fail Rev 2013;18:317–328.
  43. Maisch B. Akute und chronische Perikarditis. In Lehnert (Hrsg) Innere Medizin-Referenzwerk, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, online 2014
  44. Pankuweit S, Stein A, Karatolios K, Richter A, Ruppert V, Maisch B.  Viral genomes in the pericardial fluid and in peri- and epicardial biopsies from a German cohort of patients with large to moderate pericardial effusion.  Heart Fail Rev 2013;18:329–336
  45. Alter P, Figiel JH, Rupp TO Bachmann GF, Maisch B, Rominger MB.  MR, CT, and PET imaging in pericardial disease. Heart Fail Rev 2013;18:289–306
  46. Karatolios K, Pankuweit S, Maisch B. Diagnostic value of biochemical biomarkers in malignant and non-malignant pericardial effusion.  Heart Fail Rev 2013;18:337–344
  47. Ristic´ AD, Imazio M*, Adler Y, Anastasakis A, Badano LP, Brucato A, Caforio ALP, Dubourg O, Elliott P, Gimeno J, Helio T, Klingel K, Linhart A, Maisch B, Mayosi B, Mogensen J, Pinto Y, Seggewiss H, Seferovic´ PM, Tavazzi L,Tomkowski W, Charron P. Triage strategy for urgent management of cardiac tamponade: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases; 2014; doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu217 online
  48. Maisch B. Pericardial diseases in the era of imaging, biomarkers and molecular diagnosis.  Heart Fail Rev 2013;18:251–254
  49. Maisch B, Ristic AD, Pankuweit S, Neubauer A, Moll R. Neoplastic pericardial effusion. Efficacy and safety of intrapericardial treatment with cisplatin. Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1625–1631.
  50. Maisch B, Risti? AD, Pankuweit S. Intrapericardial treatment of autoreactive pericardial effusion with triamcinolone: the way to avoid side effects of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Eur Heart J 2002;23:1503–1508